In the early twenty-first century, children fathered by foreign soldiers during and after conflicts are often associated directly with gender-based violence. This book investigates the situations of children born of war (CBOW) since the Second World War, provides a historical synthesis that moves beyond individual case studies, and explores circumstances across time and geopolitical location. The currently used definitions and categorisations of CBOW are presented together with an overview of some key groups of CBOW. Specific conflict areas are chosen as key case studies on the basis of which several core themes are explored. These conflicts include the Second World War (1939-1945) with the subsequent post-war occupations of Germany and Austria (1945-1955). The Vietnam War (1955-1975), the Bosnian War (1992-1995), some African Conflicts of the 1990s and early 2000s, in particular in Rwanda (1994) and Uganda (1988-2006), are also examined. In the case studies, the experiences of the children are explored against the background of the circumstances of their conception. For example, the situation of the so-called Bui Doi, children of American soldiers and Vietnamese mothers is examined. The experiences of Amerasian CBOW who were adopted into the United States as infants following the Operation Babylift and those who moved as young adults following the American Homecoming Act are juxtaposed. The book also looks into the phenomenon of children fathered by UN peacekeeping personnel as a starting point for a discussion of current developments of the international discourse on CBOW.
identity-based discrimination, particularly gender-basedviolence, such as stalking
or honour killing, and societal power-relation constructs ( Woodlock, 2017 ). The intensification of surveillance by
self-tracking devices is significant, and, following Ruckenstein and Schüll (2017) , it is useful to adapt
Van Dijck’s (2014) term
‘dataveillance’, which characterises the networked, continuous
tracking of digital information processing and algorithmic analysis to grasp the
Who are they? Experiences of children, mothers, families and post-conflict communities
non-combatants62 and the growing inclination to use gender-basedviolence (GBV) as a means of warfare have all contributed to an increase of
sexualised war crimes against women and relatively more children born out of
such coercive relations. As a recent report puts it: ‘Rape in war is by no means
a new phenomenon, but its escalation as a deliberate, strategic, and political
tactic is now undeniable.’63 While complexity and scope of wartime rape were
largely overlooked until recently, the genocide in Rwanda and attempts at
ethnic cleansing by means of sexualised
fathered by foreign soldiers
during and after conflicts are often associated directly with gender-basedviolence (GBV). This is not surprising. Sexualised violence vis-à-vis women
during hostilities is not only the oldest war crime, it is also, albeit in a different
manifestation, the youngest such crime.2 Recent conflicts have seen this kind
of atrocity used extensively with a level of brutality and disregard for the laws
of warfare rarely witnessed in the past. Where there is sexual violence, children are born as a result of it. While the prevalence of conflict
A new dimension of genocidal rape and its children
CBOW in the twentieth century
conflict that took place after the signing of the Convention on the Rights of the
Child (CRC). In order to ascertain whether, and if so how, this law impacted
on the lived experiences of children fathered by foreign soldiers, the CRC will
be explored in some detail and some of the key rights of particular interest to
CBOW will be investigated in more detail against the background of conflicting
rights of family and local community.
Gender-basedviolence in Bosnia
In late 1992, reports of sexual abuses committed during the armed
This conclusion presents some closing thoughts on the concepts discussed in the preceding chapters of this book. The book discusses the issues of children born of war (CBOW) during the Second World War and its post-war occupations. It focuses on post-conflict scenarios in the Vietnam War, the Bosnian Wars and sub-Saharan African conflicts. In all the conflict and post-conflict scenarios, relationships between foreign soldiers and local women developed, often in very large numbers and frequently in spite of efforts by military leadership to prevent such relations. Evidence unequivocally demonstrates that in all those scenarios children were born as a result of such relations. The book describes the life courses of CBOW and their distinct experiences. It explores the long-term impact of gender based violence (GBV) has been a significant aspect contributing to the challenges faced by those CBOW whose mothers had been victims of sexual abuse.
Identity is often regarded as something that is possessed by individuals, states, and other agents. In this edited collection, identity is explored across a range of approaches and under-explored case studies with a view to making visible its fractured, contingent, and dynamic features. The book brings together themes of belonging and exclusion, identity formation and fragmentation. It also examines how identity functions in discourse, and the effects it produces, both materially and in ideational terms. Taking in case studies from Asia-Pacific, Europe, the Middle East and Latin America, the various chapters interrogate identity through formal governing mechanisms, popular culture and place. These studies demonstrate the complex and fluid nature of identity and identity practices, as well as implications for theorising identity.
, was important in other ways.
Despite not being able to add specific facts or information about the
pleasure marriage phenomenon, supporting reporters who would cover the
story anyhow could help to better protect and support children and
families interviewed. A specific handbook for journalists was produced
with guidance on ‘Reporting on Gender-BasedViolence in the Syrian
Crisis’, which highlights
This book explores the evolving African security paradigm in light of the multitude of diverse threats facing the continent and the international community today and in the decades ahead. It challenges current thinking and traditional security constructs as woefully inadequate to meet the real security concerns and needs of African governments in a globalized world. The continent has becoming increasingly integrated into an international security architecture, whereby Africans are just as vulnerable to threats emanating from outside the continent as they are from home-grown ones. Thus, Africa and what happens there, matters more than ever. Through an in-depth examination and analysis of the continent’s most pressing traditional and non-traditional security challenges—from failing states and identity and resource conflict to terrorism, health, and the environment—it provides a solid intellectual foundation, as well as practical examples of the complexities of the modern African security environment. Not only does it assess current progress at the local, regional, and international level in meeting these challenges, it also explores new strategies and tools for more effectively engaging Africans and the global community through the human security approach.
gendering. The construction of gendered
identities outlined above shapes the roles that men and women can undertake in post-conflict reconstruction, and this has been visible in Timor-Leste.
Therefore, the following section examines the outcomes of peace-operation
policy in a specific context, shedding light on the actual outcomes for some
women of some gender policy.
Victims: sexual and gender-basedviolence
The 2006 crisis period in Timor-Leste, or more explicitly the responses to it,
exemplifies the ways in which post-conflict peacebuilding genders identities. The