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Author: Sabine Lee

In the early twenty-first century, children fathered by foreign soldiers during and after conflicts are often associated directly with gender-based violence. This book investigates the situations of children born of war (CBOW) since the Second World War, provides a historical synthesis that moves beyond individual case studies, and explores circumstances across time and geopolitical location. The currently used definitions and categorisations of CBOW are presented together with an overview of some key groups of CBOW. Specific conflict areas are chosen as key case studies on the basis of which several core themes are explored. These conflicts include the Second World War (1939-1945) with the subsequent post-war occupations of Germany and Austria (1945-1955). The Vietnam War (1955-1975), the Bosnian War (1992-1995), some African Conflicts of the 1990s and early 2000s, in particular in Rwanda (1994) and Uganda (1988-2006), are also examined. In the case studies, the experiences of the children are explored against the background of the circumstances of their conception. For example, the situation of the so-called Bui Doi, children of American soldiers and Vietnamese mothers is examined. The experiences of Amerasian CBOW who were adopted into the United States as infants following the Operation Babylift and those who moved as young adults following the American Homecoming Act are juxtaposed. The book also looks into the phenomenon of children fathered by UN peacekeeping personnel as a starting point for a discussion of current developments of the international discourse on CBOW.

Open Access (free)
Digital Bodies, Data and Gifts
Kristin Bergtora Sandvik

identity-based discrimination, particularly gender-based violence, such as stalking or honour killing, and societal power-relation constructs ( Woodlock, 2017 ). The intensification of surveillance by self-tracking devices is significant, and, following Ruckenstein and Schüll (2017) , it is useful to adapt Van Dijck’s (2014) term ‘dataveillance’, which characterises the networked, continuous tracking of digital information processing and algorithmic analysis to grasp the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Who are they? Experiences of children, mothers, families and post-conflict communities
Sabine Lee

non-combatants62 and the growing inclination to use gender-based violence (GBV) as a means of warfare have all contributed to an increase of sexualised war crimes against women and relatively more children born out of such coercive relations. As a recent report puts it: ‘Rape in war is by no means a new phenomenon, but its escalation as a deliberate, strategic, and political tactic is now undeniable.’63 While complexity and scope of wartime rape were largely overlooked until recently, the genocide in Rwanda and attempts at ethnic cleansing by means of sexualised

in Children born of war in the twentieth century
An introduction
Sabine Lee

fathered by foreign soldiers during and after conflicts are often associated directly with gender-based violence (GBV). This is not surprising. Sexualised violence vis-à-vis women during hostilities is not only the oldest war crime, it is also, albeit in a different manifestation, the youngest such crime.2 Recent conflicts have seen this kind of atrocity used extensively with a level of brutality and disregard for the laws of warfare rarely witnessed in the past. Where there is sexual violence, children are born as a result of it. While the prevalence of conflict

in Children born of war in the twentieth century
Abstract only
A new dimension of genocidal rape and its children
Sabine Lee

152 CBOW in the twentieth century conflict that took place after the signing of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). In order to ascertain whether, and if so how, this law impacted on the lived experiences of children fathered by foreign soldiers, the CRC will be explored in some detail and some of the key rights of particular interest to CBOW will be investigated in more detail against the background of conflicting rights of family and local community. Gender-based violence in Bosnia In late 1992, reports of sexual abuses committed during the armed

in Children born of war in the twentieth century
Open Access (free)
A conceptualisation of violence against women’s health (VAWH)
Sara De Vido

important’ than physical harm. Quite to the contrary, psychological harm has long-lasting consequences. The ECtHR argued, in Valiulienė, that it could not ‘turn a blind eye to the psychological aspect of the alleged ill-treatment … psychological impact is an important aspect of domestic violence,’12 and it found that Lithuania had violated Article 3 ECHR. It can be argued that, according to this jurisprudence, there is no pre-determined ‘threshold’ below which an act of gender-based violence is considered as not violence. Confirming this point, in several cases of DV the

in Violence against women’s health in international law
Abstract only
Children born of war: lessons learnt?
Sabine Lee

This conclusion presents some closing thoughts on the concepts discussed in the preceding chapters of this book. The book discusses the issues of children born of war (CBOW) during the Second World War and its post-war occupations. It focuses on post-conflict scenarios in the Vietnam War, the Bosnian Wars and sub-Saharan African conflicts. In all the conflict and post-conflict scenarios, relationships between foreign soldiers and local women developed, often in very large numbers and frequently in spite of efforts by military leadership to prevent such relations. Evidence unequivocally demonstrates that in all those scenarios children were born as a result of such relations. The book describes the life courses of CBOW and their distinct experiences. It explores the long-term impact of gender based violence (GBV) has been a significant aspect contributing to the challenges faced by those CBOW whose mothers had been victims of sexual abuse.

in Children born of war in the twentieth century
Author: Sara De Vido

The book explores the relationship between violence against women on one hand, and the rights to health and reproductive health on the other. It argues that violation of the right to health is a consequence of violence, and that (state) health policies might be a cause of – or create the conditions for – violence against women. It significantly contributes to feminist and international human rights legal scholarship by conceptualising a new ground-breaking idea, violence against women’s health (VAWH), using the Hippocratic paradigm as the backbone of the analysis. The two dimensions of violence at the core of the book – the horizontal, ‘interpersonal’ dimension and the vertical ‘state policies’ dimension – are investigated through around 70 decisions of domestic, regional and international judicial or quasi-judicial bodies (the anamnesis). The concept of VAWH, drawn from the anamnesis, enriches the traditional concept of violence against women with a human rights-based approach to autonomy and a reflection on the pervasiveness of patterns of discrimination (diagnosis). VAWH as theorised in the book allows the reconceptualisation of states’ obligations in an innovative way, by identifying for both dimensions obligations of result, due diligence obligations, and obligations to progressively take steps (treatment). The book eventually asks whether it is not international law itself that is the ultimate cause of VAWH (prognosis).

Place, space and discourse
Editors: Christine Agius and Dean Keep

Identity is often regarded as something that is possessed by individuals, states, and other agents. In this edited collection, identity is explored across a range of approaches and under-explored case studies with a view to making visible its fractured, contingent, and dynamic features. The book brings together themes of belonging and exclusion, identity formation and fragmentation. It also examines how identity functions in discourse, and the effects it produces, both materially and in ideational terms. Taking in case studies from Asia-Pacific, Europe, the Middle East and Latin America, the various chapters interrogate identity through formal governing mechanisms, popular culture and place. These studies demonstrate the complex and fluid nature of identity and identity practices, as well as implications for theorising identity.

Toby Fricker

, was important in other ways. Despite not being able to add specific facts or information about the pleasure marriage phenomenon, supporting reporters who would cover the story anyhow could help to better protect and support children and families interviewed. A specific handbook for journalists was produced with guidance on ‘Reporting on Gender-Based Violence in the Syrian Crisis’, which highlights

in Global humanitarianism and media culture