In the early twenty-first century, children fathered by foreign soldiers during and after conflicts are often associated directly with gender-based violence. This book investigates the situations of children born of war (CBOW) since the Second World War, provides a historical synthesis that moves beyond individual case studies, and explores circumstances across time and geopolitical location. The currently used definitions and categorisations of CBOW are presented together with an overview of some key groups of CBOW. Specific conflict areas are chosen as key case studies on the basis of which several core themes are explored. These conflicts include the Second World War (1939-1945) with the subsequent post-war occupations of Germany and Austria (1945-1955). The Vietnam War (1955-1975), the Bosnian War (1992-1995), some African Conflicts of the 1990s and early 2000s, in particular in Rwanda (1994) and Uganda (1988-2006), are also examined. In the case studies, the experiences of the children are explored against the background of the circumstances of their conception. For example, the situation of the so-called Bui Doi, children of American soldiers and Vietnamese mothers is examined. The experiences of Amerasian CBOW who were adopted into the United States as infants following the Operation Babylift and those who moved as young adults following the American Homecoming Act are juxtaposed. The book also looks into the phenomenon of children fathered by UN peacekeeping personnel as a starting point for a discussion of current developments of the international discourse on CBOW.
Lessons Learned for Engagement in Fragile and Conflict-Affected States
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A Response to the Journal of Humanitarian Affairs Special Issue on Innovation in Humanitarian Action (JHA, 1:3)
, sanitation and hygiene (WASH), gender-basedviolence (GBV), disability and older-age inclusion – or to systemic humanitarian innovation ‘problems’, such as localisation and scale. Thematic gaps for innovation to address are identified through robust gap analyses, problem exploration ‘deep dives’ and challenge prioritisation exercises, engaging a wide range of stakeholders and working together with experts in these areas. We support more complex, cross-sector challenges (for example, humanitarian inclusion in WASH), seek to address systemic as well as operational aspects of
been told many times in many forms, but nowhere more persuasively than in Alison Des Forges’ landmark investigation, Leave No One To Tell the Story . It remains the most wide-ranging, thoroughly researched and reliable source of information on the 1994 genocide’ ( Lemarchand, 2013 ).
Many of the works published since 1999 have gone into greater depth on specific issues that are covered in Leave None to Tell and offer detail without contradicting the basic arguments. For example, several works have looked in greater depth at sexual and gender-basedviolence in
in the digital data economy’ ( Lupton, 2016: 117 ). Important gender implications arise from how
surveillance technologies focused on bodies and personal lives intersect with
identity-based discrimination, particularly gender-basedviolence, such as stalking
or honour killing, and societal power-relation constructs ( Woodlock, 2017 ). The intensification of surveillance by
self-tracking devices is significant, and, following Ruckenstein and Schüll (2017) , it is useful to adapt
Who are they? Experiences of children, mothers, families and post-conflict communities
non-combatants62 and the growing inclination to use gender-basedviolence (GBV) as a means of warfare have all contributed to an increase of
sexualised war crimes against women and relatively more children born out of
such coercive relations. As a recent report puts it: ‘Rape in war is by no means
a new phenomenon, but its escalation as a deliberate, strategic, and political
tactic is now undeniable.’63 While complexity and scope of wartime rape were
largely overlooked until recently, the genocide in Rwanda and attempts at
ethnic cleansing by means of sexualised
fathered by foreign soldiers
during and after conflicts are often associated directly with gender-basedviolence (GBV). This is not surprising. Sexualised violence vis-à-vis women
during hostilities is not only the oldest war crime, it is also, albeit in a different
manifestation, the youngest such crime.2 Recent conflicts have seen this kind
of atrocity used extensively with a level of brutality and disregard for the laws
of warfare rarely witnessed in the past. Where there is sexual violence, children are born as a result of it. While the prevalence of conflict
A new dimension of genocidal rape and its children
CBOW in the twentieth century
conflict that took place after the signing of the Convention on the Rights of the
Child (CRC). In order to ascertain whether, and if so how, this law impacted
on the lived experiences of children fathered by foreign soldiers, the CRC will
be explored in some detail and some of the key rights of particular interest to
CBOW will be investigated in more detail against the background of conflicting
rights of family and local community.
Gender-basedviolence in Bosnia
In late 1992, reports of sexual abuses committed during the armed
A conceptualisation of violence against women’s health (VAWH)
Sara De Vido
important’ than physical
harm. Quite to the contrary, psychological harm has long-lasting consequences.
The ECtHR argued, in Valiulienė, that it could not ‘turn a blind eye to the
psychological aspect of the alleged ill-treatment … psychological impact is an
important aspect of domestic violence,’12 and it found that Lithuania had violated
Article 3 ECHR. It can be argued that, according to this jurisprudence, there is
no pre-determined ‘threshold’ below which an act of gender-basedviolence is
considered as not violence. Confirming this point, in several cases of DV the
This conclusion presents some closing thoughts on the concepts discussed in the preceding chapters of this book. The book discusses the issues of children born of war (CBOW) during the Second World War and its post-war occupations. It focuses on post-conflict scenarios in the Vietnam War, the Bosnian Wars and sub-Saharan African conflicts. In all the conflict and post-conflict scenarios, relationships between foreign soldiers and local women developed, often in very large numbers and frequently in spite of efforts by military leadership to prevent such relations. Evidence unequivocally demonstrates that in all those scenarios children were born as a result of such relations. The book describes the life courses of CBOW and their distinct experiences. It explores the long-term impact of gender based violence (GBV) has been a significant aspect contributing to the challenges faced by those CBOW whose mothers had been victims of sexual abuse.