In the early twenty-first century, children fathered by foreign soldiers during and after conflicts are often associated directly with gender-based violence. This book investigates the situations of children born of war (CBOW) since the Second World War, provides a historical synthesis that moves beyond individual case studies, and explores circumstances across time and geopolitical location. The currently used definitions and categorisations of CBOW are presented together with an overview of some key groups of CBOW. Specific conflict areas are chosen as key case studies on the basis of which several core themes are explored. These conflicts include the Second World War (1939-1945) with the subsequent post-war occupations of Germany and Austria (1945-1955). The Vietnam War (1955-1975), the Bosnian War (1992-1995), some African Conflicts of the 1990s and early 2000s, in particular in Rwanda (1994) and Uganda (1988-2006), are also examined. In the case studies, the experiences of the children are explored against the background of the circumstances of their conception. For example, the situation of the so-called Bui Doi, children of American soldiers and Vietnamese mothers is examined. The experiences of Amerasian CBOW who were adopted into the United States as infants following the Operation Babylift and those who moved as young adults following the American Homecoming Act are juxtaposed. The book also looks into the phenomenon of children fathered by UN peacekeeping personnel as a starting point for a discussion of current developments of the international discourse on CBOW.
support. Instead, these entities have tended to
adopt, what I term, a gender-inclusive approach which presumes that men can simply
be included in already existing sexual and gender-basedviolence (SGBV) services,
which are designed for women. The OSRSG-SVC
report (2013 : 20) suggests it is crucial to treat men in the same manner
as women through gender-inclusive programming. However, this manifests as a system
in which the same intervention services are offered
Dispelling Misconceptions about Sexual Violence against Men and Boys in
Conflict and Displacement
Heleen Touquet, Sarah Chynoweth, Sarah Martin, Chen Reis, Henri Myrttinen, Philipp Schulz, Lewis Turner, and David Duriesmith
( Chynoweth, 2019a ). Survivors had the
option of speaking with a man or woman health provider and some women and men
disclosed to providers of a different gender. A report by UC Berkeley’s Human Rights Center (2018) contains similar
examples, guidelines and tools from research on disclosure in forced displacement in
Gender-basedviolence specialists have spent decades working to develop effective
programmes that create
Gender Equality and Culture in Humanitarian Action
Ricardo Fal-Dutra Santos
cultures. 2 Examples include
discourses that portray gender-basedviolence (GBV) as cultural practice ( Ward, 2002 : 9) and gender equality
programming as ‘akin to “social engineering” and [going]
against cultural norms’ ( IASC,
2006 : 1). While acknowledging the importance of respect for the cultures
and values of local communities when serving them, I argue that transforming certain
gender norms and related cultural practices is essential to
A Belated but Welcome Theory of Change on Mental Health and
, vulnerability and consequences. 8 The latter includes not only
genetic predisposition to virus susceptibility, but also neglect of pre-existing
health conditions and of related needs (such as nutritional intake). These may arise
not only from poverty, but also from mental health fluctuation, or from gender-basedviolence which has increased globally during lockdowns – often the cause of
poor mental health. 9 Thus, the
pandemic continues to impact adversely upon mental health
Security Database (AWSD) and beset by persistent low reporting, particularly
of incidents against ‘local’ staff or perpetrated by co-workers. What
qualifies as a ‘major’ incident is contested, and aid organisations
have been known to keep incidents, particularly gender-basedviolence (GBV), under
wraps. Staff may also encounter barriers to reporting, like the threat of job loss,
should their work come to be seen as too risky. What evidence exists, however, makes
a strong case
Lessons Learned for Engagement in Fragile and Conflict-Affected States
Turnbull , M. ( 2016 ), NRC Final Evaluation Report: South Sudan Emergency Response December 2013 – December 2015 .
Integrated Risk Management Associates : Singapore .
Morrison-Métois , S. ( 2017 ), Responding to Refugee Crises: Lessons from Evaluations in South Sudan as a Country of Origin
September 2017 .
OECD/Norad : Paris .
. ( 2017 ), Promoting Women’s Role in Peace Building and GenderBasedViolence Prevention in South Sudan .
Mid-term Evaluation Report
October 2017 .
. ( 2009 ), Mid
A Response to the Journal of Humanitarian Affairs Special Issue on Innovation in Humanitarian Action (JHA, 1:3)
, sanitation and hygiene (WASH), gender-basedviolence (GBV), disability and older-age inclusion – or to systemic humanitarian innovation ‘problems’, such as localisation and scale. Thematic gaps for innovation to address are identified through robust gap analyses, problem exploration ‘deep dives’ and challenge prioritisation exercises, engaging a wide range of stakeholders and working together with experts in these areas. We support more complex, cross-sector challenges (for example, humanitarian inclusion in WASH), seek to address systemic as well as operational aspects of
been told many times in many forms, but nowhere more persuasively than in Alison Des Forges’ landmark investigation, Leave No One To Tell the Story . It remains the most wide-ranging, thoroughly researched and reliable source of information on the 1994 genocide’ ( Lemarchand, 2013 ).
Many of the works published since 1999 have gone into greater depth on specific issues that are covered in Leave None to Tell and offer detail without contradicting the basic arguments. For example, several works have looked in greater depth at sexual and gender-basedviolence in
Middle-Aged Syrian Women’s Contributions to Family Livelihoods
during Protracted Displacement in Jordan
Dina Sidhva, Ann-Christin Zuntz, Ruba al Akash, Ayat Nashwan, and Areej Al-Majali
peaceful resistance at the grassroots level ( Alsaba and Kapilashrami, 2016 ). In retaliation, they have been targeted
by rape and gender-basedviolence by the Syrian regime and other parties to the
conflict ( Abu-Assab, 2017 ). This brief
summary of women’s history in modern Syria is not meant to be exhaustive, but
it demonstrates that our interlocutors’ exposure to ideals of ‘female
self-reliance’ is nothing new. In the remaining sections, we show that