This book reassesses a defining historical, political and ideological moment in contemporary history: the 1989 revolutions in central and eastern Europe. It considers the origins, processes and outcomes of the collapse of communism in eastern Europe. The book argues that communism was not simply an 'unnatural Yoke' around the necks of East Europeans, but was a powerful, and not entirely negative, historical force capable of modernizing societies, cultures and economies. It focuses on the interplay between internal and external developments as opposed to an emphasis on Cold War geopolitical power struggles and the triumphalist rhetoric of how the 'freedom-loving' USA 'defeated' the 'totalitarian' Soviet Union. The book also approaches the East European revolutions from a variety of angles, emphasizing generational conflicts, socio-economic and domestic aspects, international features, the 'Gorbachev factor', and the role of peace movements or discourses on revolution. It analyses the peace movements in both parts of Germany during the 1980s from a perspective that transcends the ideological and geopolitical divides of the Cold War. The history of the East German peace movement has mostly been written from the perspective of German unification in 1989-1990. Many historians have read the history of the civil rights movement of 1989-1990 backwards in order to show its importance, or ignored it altogether to highlight the totalitarian character of the German Democratic Republic.
– stylistic, thematic, ideological – found within Assassin(s) that make it a more demanding and, at times, contradictory film, also deliberately function to foreground the controversial issues Kassovitz wishes to address, propelling the peripatetic and sometimes faltering narrative to its bleak conclusion. Generational conflict: film noir versus the TV aesthetic
emerges from Pialat’s preoccupation with the family: issues of community and national identity, Warehime_04_ch3 45 12/21/05, 9:40 AM 46 maurice pialat generational conflict (and its historical counterpart: tradition versus change), work and money, sexuality and sexual politics, and paternity. This gives his films a political dimension that is all the more subtle for remaining implicit in the interactions of individual characters, even though the ambiguities of these interactions occasionally led viewers to accuse Pialat of anti-Semitism, racism and misogyny
of the Black community as seen from within. The series also focused on cross-generational conflict and, in particular, disagreements between first and second generation Black Britons, a theme which went on to dominate much Black and Asian-written television and theatre in Britain.48 For example, at two points in the first Framing The Fosters 185 series, the increasing militancy of the second generation was addressed through the character of the youngest son Benjamin, in both cases resulting in Sam and Pearl supporting his political challenges. In one episode
the following: its blank quality, the social critique, its negationism and nonconformity ( 2007 : 16). It is important to conclude, therefore, that while generational conflict is nothing new, what is unique in Salto al vacío and Historias del Kronen is the way these young writers and filmmakers reappropriate certain aspects of punk ideology. They do so mainly in order to emphasise generational identity in terms of
this level, to escape altogether from a world of crime in which some became hardened professionals [ 81 ], [ 84 ]. 17 Most recorded incidents, however, had their origins in domestic arguments, generational conflicts, tensions in the workplace or, once again, the perceived corruption of justices or tax officials, each of which was fostered by the multiple inequalities of urban society. 79
This chapter looks at the crafting of the CCP ideological message, the parameters of regime legitimacy and potential for generational conflict. It examines the enormous efforts the Party puts into crafting its ideological message and the popular response. The current campaign to counter corruption is also examined.
As the 1980s progressed, Liverpool’s workers exhibited a greater willingness to take direct action against the ever increasing numbers of forced redundancies and factory closures plaguing Merseyside. Frustrations came to a head when workers at Cammell Laird Shipyards fought to save their jobs by means of a workplace occupation in the summer of 1984. This conflict at Cammell Laird symbolised the willingness of some workers to defy the law and their own trade union bosses in order to defend their livelihoods. But it is also demonstrated the obstacles to constructing solidarity against countervailing divisions rooted in generational conflict and workplace sectionalism.
This book is a social history of northern soul. It examines the origins and development of this music scene, its clubs, publications and practices, by locating it in the shifting economic and social contexts of the English midlands and north in the 1970s. The popularity of northern soul emerged in a period when industrial working-class communities were beginning to be transformed by deindustrialisation and the rise of new political movements around the politics of race, gender and locality. The book makes a significant contribution to the historiography of youth culture, popular music and everyday life in post-war Britain. The authors draw on an expansive range of sources including magazines/fanzines, diaries, letters, and a comprehensive oral history project to produce a detailed, analytical and empathetic reading of an aspect of working-class culture that was created and consumed by thousands of young men and women in the 1970s. A range of voices appear throughout the book to highlight the complexity of the role of class, race and gender, locality and how such identities acted as forces for both unity and fragmentation on the dance floors of iconic clubs such as the Twisted Wheel (Manchester), the Torch (Stoke-on-Trent), the Catacombs (Wolverhampton) and the Casino (Wigan).
Victorian medical men could suffer numerous setbacks on their individual paths to professionalisation, and Thomas Elkanah Hoyle's career offers a telling exemplar. This book addresses a range of the financial, professional, and personal challenges that faced and sometimes defeated the aspiring medical men of England and Wales. Spanning the decades 1780-1890, from the publication of the first medical directory to the second Medical Registration Act, it considers their careers in England and Wales, and in the Indian Medical Service. The book questions the existing picture of broad and rising medical prosperity across the nineteenth century to consider the men who did not keep up with professionalising trends. Financial difficulty was widespread in medical practice, and while there are only a few who underwent bankruptcy or insolvency identified among medical suicides, the fear of financial failure could prove a powerful motive for self-destruction. The book unpicks the life stories of men such as Henry Edwards, who could not sustain a professional persona of disinterested expertise. In doing so it uncovers the trials of the medical marketplace and the pressures of medical masculinity. The book also considers charges against practitioners that entailed their neglect, incompetence or questionable practice which occasioned a threat to patients' lives. The occurrence and reporting of violent crime by medical men, specifically serious sexual assault and murder is also discussed. A tiny proportion of medical practitioners also experienced life as a patient in an asylum.