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Open Access (free)
Tony Fitzpatrick

This chapter analyses the principles of sustainability and attention of ecowelfare by studying the new genetics. It argues for a multidimensional conception of human nature where the maintenance of diversity through social solutions (rather than technological fixes) should be the priority. It discusses the positions of Charles Murray and Francis Fukayama on eugenics. This concludes that we should only be allowed to improve human well-being through biotechnology if we are also prepared to improve it through the implementation of policies based upon distributive justice and attention.

in After the new social democracy
The manifold materialities of human remains
Claudia Fonseca and Rodrigo Grazinoli Garrido

In this article we explore the relational materiality of fragments of human cadavers used to produce DNA profiles of the unidentified dead at a forensic genetics police laboratory in Rio de Janeiro. Our point of departure is an apparently simple problem: how to discard already tested materials in order to open up physical space for incoming tissue samples. However, during our study we found that transforming human tissues and bone fragments into disposable trash requires a tremendous institutional investment of energy, involving negotiations with public health authorities, criminal courts and public burial grounds. The dilemma confronted by the forensic genetic lab suggests not only how some fragments are endowed with more personhood than others, but also how the very distinction between human remains and trash depends on a patchwork of multiple logics that does not necessarily perform according to well-established or predictable scripts.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Social welfare for the twenty-first century

Social democracy has made a political comeback in recent years, especially under the influence of the ‘Third Way’. Not everyone is convinced, however, that ‘Third Way’ social democracy is the best means of reviving the Left's project. This book considers this dissent and offers an alternative approach. Bringing together a range of social and political theories, it engages with some contemporary debates regarding the present direction and future of the Left. Drawing upon egalitarian, feminist and environmental ideas, the book proposes that the social democratic tradition can be renewed but only if the dominance of conservative ideas is challenged more effectively. It explores a number of issues with this aim in mind, including justice, the state, democracy, new technologies, future generations and the advances in genetics.

Genetics, pathology, and diversity in twentieth-century America

Is deafness a disability to be prevented or the uniting trait of a cultural community to be preserved? Combining the history of eugenics and genetics with deaf and disability history, this book traces how American heredity researchers moved from trying to eradicate deafness to embracing it as a valuable cultural diversity. It looks at how deafness came to be seen as a hereditary phenomenon in the first place, how eugenics became part of progressive reform at schools for the deaf, and what this meant for early genetic counselling. Not least, this is a story of how deaf people’s perspectives were pushed out of science, and how they gradually reemerged from the 1950s onwards in new cooperative projects between professionals and local signing deaf communities. It thus sheds light on the early history of culturally sensitive health care services for minorities in the US, and on the role of the psycho-sciences in developing a sociocultural minority model of deafness. For scholars and students of deaf and disability studies and history, as well as health care professionals and activists, this book offers new insight to changing ideas about medical ethics, reproductive rights, and the meaning of scientific progress. Finally, it shows how genetics came to be part of recent arguments about deafness as a form of biocultural diversity.

Historical and anthropological approaches to a changing regime of governance

What does global health stem from, when is it born, how does it relate to the contemporary world order? This book explores the origins of global health, a new regime of health intervention in countries of the global South, born around 1990. It proposes an encompassing view of the transition from international public health to global health, bringing together historians and anthropologists to explore the relationship between knowledge, practices and policies. It aims at interrogating two gaps left by historical and anthropological studies of the governance of health outside Europe and North America. The first is a temporal gap between the historiography of international public health through the 1970s and the numerous anthropological studies of global health in the present. The second originates in problems of scale. Macro-inquiries of institutions and politics, and micro-investigations of local configurations, abound. The book relies on a stronger engagement between history and anthropology, i.e. the harnessing of concepts (circulation, scale, transnationalism) crossing both of them, and on four domains of intervention: tuberculosis, mental health, medical genetics and traditional (Asian) medicines. The volume analyses how the new modes of ‘interventions on the life of others’ recently appeared, why they blur the classical divides between North and South and how they relate to the more general neoliberal turn in politics and economy. The book is meant for academics, students and health professionals interested in new discussions about the transnational circulation of drugs, bugs, therapies, biomedical technologies and people in the context of the ‘neoliberal turn’ in development practices.

Heredity research and counselling at the Clarke School, 1930–1960
Marion Andrea Schmidt

on the inheritance of deafness worldwide. Covering the period from the 1930s to the 1960s, the school’s heredity research fell into a time of immense changes in eugenics, genetics, and genetic counselling. During this time, the coercive, state-driven, and biased eugenics of the 1920s, 1930s, and 1940s grew into the modern medical genetics of the 1950s and 1960s, which, increasingly, emphasized individual autonomy. Historians have given much attention to the fraught, ritualized, and incomplete manner in which geneticists, physicians, biologists, or

in Eradicating deafness?
Collaborating for culturally sensitive counselling, 1970–1990
Marion Andrea Schmidt

In the early 1970s, geneticist Walter Nance counselled a deaf couple on their risk of having a deaf child. For Nance, this was a standard procedure. The couple’s reaction, however, made him question his approach and beliefs. ‘It is a sobering experience’, he recalled later, ‘to spend an hour communicating the facts of genetics to a deaf couple through an interpreter, only to be confronted by the question from the shy young bride, “What is wrong with being deaf?”’ 1 What, indeed, was wrong with it? If one believed in genetics as a science that served the

in Eradicating deafness?
Theatre of Debate
Simon Parry

the life sciences through dramatic narratives, examining the way the practice has engaged with genetics and genomics. In the second half of the chapter, I extend my discussion of Theatre of Debate as a dramaturgical approach, outlining further aspects of the process and how it constitutes an intervention into education that values and promotes embodied knowledge, what I call, following Rose, ‘somatic expertise’. In these sections, I describe the development of a specific project Theatre, education and the politics of life itself 95 dealing with the politics of

in Science in performance
Introduction
Claire Beaudevin, Jean-Paul Gaudillière, Christoph Gradmann, Anne M. Lovell, and Laurent Pordié

innovative screening and treatments, such as medical genetics. In all areas, global health carries a series of assumptions – from the primacy of metrics and evidence-based practices to the incorporation of human-rights and poverty-eradication principles – that seem to oppose the earlier era of international health and development. This volume moves beyond acknowledgements of the discursive prominence of global health to examine deep transformations regarding the actors, the targets and the tools involved in the governance of health at the international

in Global health and the new world order
Abstract only
From Bell to biodiversity
Marion Andrea Schmidt

In 2003, Walter Nance contemplated the future of the American Deaf community. Referring to the ‘social and ethical aspects of genetic deafness’, he speculated that with recent advances in biomedicine, ‘Deaf culture may well disappear in our country by the end of this century’. Yet, he argued, it was not genetics that Deaf people had to fear most. Rather it was cochlear implant technology that ‘almost certainly represents a much greater threat to deaf culture than genetic testing’. 1 This was a statement revealing of geneticists’ changing self

in Eradicating deafness?