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The First Aid Nursing Yeomanry in the First World War
Author: Janet Lee

Total war tends to create a situation that falls back on established social and cultural discourses and institutional arrangements at the same time that it provides the opportunity for a shifting and renegotiation of these arrangements. This book explores how the First Aid Nursing Yeomanry (FANY) drew upon, and/or subverted cultural mythologies to make sense of their wartime service. It focuses on this renegotiation of gender and examines seven key themes implicit in this process. The first theme concerns the ways women's military organizations utilized traditional notions of genteel femininity and its accompanying nurturance, cheerfulness and devotion in their promise of service, yet went beyond the parameters of such cultural mythologies. The second focuses on the gendering of military heroism. The third theme addresses the context of female military service in terms of the preparation women received, the opportunities they were given and the risks they took, and focuses on their coping behaviours. Theme four focuses specifically on women's transgression into the masculine terrain of driving and mechanics and shares the ways they developed skills and competencies previously off-limits for women. Such transgressions almost invariably led to women having to negotiate masculine authority and develop skills in autonomy, independence and assertiveness - the focus of theme five. The last two themes discussed in the book address the integration and consolidation of women's organizations as the war progressed and their service became indispensable.

Imperial ideology in English gender politics
Diane Robinson-Dunn

, Islamic practices. Such an approach excluded from the nation a number of people living in England, an issue that will be explored in chapter five. The harem and genteel femininity Thus far this chapter has focused on the ways in which ideas about the harem and slavery entered English gender debates and helped to create versions of English national

in The harem, slavery and British imperial culture
The founding of the FANY 1907–14
Janet Lee

, subverting masculine space. What kinds of cultural changes were happening to make space for such developments, and how were these women able to use their class privilege and modify existing notions of gender and militarism in order to practise such behaviours? This chapter addresses these questions by exploring the first theme of the book, the ways the FANY utilized and subverted traditional notions of genteel femininity. It explores the origins of the FANY and historicizes their founding in the social and cultural forces of the day. 24 War girls Edwardian womanhood and

in War girls
Peter Hutchings

she plays, who is the mother of an adult daughter, is of a comparable age. One wonders if the ‘old crone’ label reveals some inadvertent critical hyperbole on the part of a 1940s critic struggling to bring together this symbol of domesticated and genteel femininity with an off-screen scene of visceral and gory violence, although one could also argue that this turns out to be a problem for the filmmakers

in She-wolf
Grace Ashley-Smith in Belgium Autumn 1914
Janet Lee

of young men is, as Rupert Brooke wrote, the red sweet wine of youth.20 While this Great War Rhetoric was the sentimental way both men and women could decently write about the events of the war at its beginning, given traditional nineteenth-century literary conventions, women in particular were also encouraged to combine the sentimental with romance, the privileged voice of genteel femininity. These feminine discourses were grounded in religious and moral distinctions and involved the expression of the ‘highest’ feelings of tenderness and were influenced more by

in War girls
White women, property rights and slaveholding in North Carolina
Cecily Jones

E. Wood has suggested that mistresses used less violent force against their slaves than did male planters. Wood argues that notions of genteel lady-hood constrained women’s ability to resort to violence when confronted with recalcitrant or unruly slaves. The deployment of physical violence was a force strongly associated with the prerogatives of masculinity and mastery, not genteel femininity

in Engendering whiteness
Abstract only
Janet Lee

identity in the context of Introduction class and gendered social relations and how they were ultimately able to renegotiate gender in the context of wartime service. This book focuses on this renegotiation of gender and examines seven key themes implicit in this process. The first theme concerns the ways women’s military organizations utilized traditional notions of genteel femininity and its accompanying nurturance, cheerfulness and devotion in their promise of service, yet went beyond the parameters of such cultural mythologies. The second focuses on the gendering of

in War girls
Gender modernity and the First Aid Nursing Yeomanry
Juliette Pattinson

feminine sites of domesticity within the masculine space of the front. These served as ‘crises heterotopia’, ‘diffus[ing]’ the subversive nature of their hard physical wartime work by softening its brutalising effects and reflecting genteel femininity. Such recreations of home functioned as a ‘spatial imaginary’, Lee argues, juxtaposing the ‘material practices of femininity’ with the seemingly incompatible ‘sites of combat’. 55 Lee’s monograph and four articles are the only scholarly work focusing on the Corps. 56 A few other scholars have, however, referred to the

in Women of war
Zenana encounters in nineteenth-century Bengal
Indrani Sen

‘inculcate in Indian women a particular style of genteel femininity’, and shape them into ‘better wives and mothers’. 28 After all, as Jane Haggis points out, the missionary endeavour was not merely to convert, educate or enlighten but also to very clearly impose a westernised gender role model, ‘a very specific set of gender roles and models belonging to Victorian middle

in Gendered transactions
The formation of a female nursing yeomanry
Juliette Pattinson

worn by women when riding side-saddle is just one of the many ways horse-riding shaped genteel femininity, as Alison Matthews David and Alison Goodrum have discussed. 117 Unlike many other sports, riding is not competitive, has no rules, is recreational, and does not require physical strength or the wearing of defeminising clothing. Moreover, the labour required to look after a horse, including grooming, feeding, exercising and turning out, fits within a notion of female nurturing and care-giving. 118 And yet given the hard, dirty and exhausting manual labour

in Women of war