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Liverpool’s inconvenient imperial past

Liverpool occupies a prominent position in the contemporary popular imagination. In spite of decades of economic decline, urban decay and a name associated by some with poverty and crime, the city's reputation is by no means a negative one. The book is a collection of essays that focuses on the strength of Liverpool's merchant marine, representing both informal and formal empire over centuries. It discusses the interracial relationships in 1950s and 1960s Liverpool to demonstrate that many African and Afro-Caribbean sailors (and others) married or had relationships with white women. Given existing deficiencies in the historiographies of both Liverpool and the British Empire, the book aims to reassess both Liverpool's role within the British imperial system and the impact on the port city of its colonial connections. Liverpool's success has often been attributed to, and marred by, its being the leader in the slave trade after 1750. Napoleonic Wars were a period of great turbulence and difficulty for the Liverpool commercial community. Liverpool is perceived as a diasporic city, however, its ambiguous nineteenth-century identity reflected the tensions of its complex migrant connections. An analysis of Liverpool's business connections with South America reveals its relative commercial decline and the notion of 'gentlemanly capitalism'. The African ethnology collection of National Museums Liverpool's (NML) ethnology collections are displayed in the 'World Cultures' gallery of the World Museum Liverpool, which opened in 2005. Liverpool is perhaps not exceptional, though its networks are notable and striking.

Rory M. Miller and Robert G. Greenhill

gentlemanly capitalism’ during the 1980s. Cain and Hopkins argued that one outstanding feature of the late nineteenth century was ‘the reassertion of London’s pre-eminence as a centre of power in comparison with the industrial provinces, which had been the main source of political and social dynamism earlier in the century’. 5 This process reflected the relative decline of Britain

in The empire in one city?
Some insights into a provincial British commercial network
Anthony Webster

. 50 D. Morier Evans, The Commercial Crisis, 1847–1848 (London: Letts, Son and Steer, 1849). 51 A. Webster, ‘The strategies and limitations of gentlemanly capitalism: the London East India agency houses, provincial commercial interests and the evolution of British economic policy in South and

in The empire in one city?
Abstract only
The empire in one city?
Sheryllynne Haggerty, Anthony Webster and Nicholas J. White

. Not surprisingly, Liverpool and indeed other provincial cities have received limited attention in the work of Peter Cain and Antony Hopkins. In proposing the notion of ‘gentlemanly capitalism’, Cain and Hopkins have argued that Britain’s overseas expansion in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, as well as the survival, revival and contraction of British imperial power during the twentieth century

in The empire in one city?
Stephanie Barczewski

money came from the Empire. 3 What does this mean for the relationship between empire building and landed property in Britain? That relationship has been examined most extensively by P. J. Cain and A. G. Hopkins, who argue that ‘gentlemanly capitalism’ was the driving force behind Britain’s imperial expansion. Cain and Hopkins attribute the expansion of empire not to the growth of industrial

in Country houses and the British Empire, 1700–1930
Abstract only
Mrinalini Sinha

Capitalism and British Overseas Expansion, i: The Old Colonial System, 1688–1850’, Economic History Review, 34 [1986), 501–25; and ‘Gentlemanly Capitalism and British Overseas Expansion, ii: New Imperialism, 1850–1945’, Economic History Review, 40 11987), 1–27. 7 See Martin J. Wiener, English Culture and the

in Colonial masculinity
Jennifer Mori

(Cambridge, 1975) and ‘Sceptical Whiggism, commerce, and liberty’; Pincus, ‘Popery, trade and universal monarchy: the ideological context of the outbreak of the second Anglo-Dutch war’, EHR, 422 (1992), 1–29; Robertson, ‘Universal monarchy and the liberties of Europe’, pp. 349–73. 4 P.J. Cain and A.G. Hopkins, ‘Gentlemanly capitalism and British expansion overseas I: the old colonial system, 1688–1850’, Economic History Review, 39 (1986), 520; Bayly, Imperial Meridian, p. 30. 5 Eliga Gould, The Persistence of Empire: British Political Culture in the Age of the American

in The culture of diplomacy
Crossing boundaries and negotiating the cultural landscape
Author: Janice Norwood

Victorian touring actresses: Crossing boundaries and negotiating the cultural landscape provides a new perspective on the on- and offstage lives of women working in nineteenth-century theatre, and affirms the central role of touring, both within the United Kingdom and in North America and Australasia. Drawing on extensive archival research, it features a cross-section of neglected performers whose dramatic specialisms range from tragedy to burlesque. Although they were employed as stars in their own time, their contribution to the industry has largely been forgotten. The book’s innovative organisation follows a natural lifecycle, enabling a detailed examination of the practical challenges and opportunities typically encountered by the actress at each stage of her working life. Individual experiences are scrutinised to highlight the career implications of strategies adopted to cope with the demands of the profession, the physical potential of the actress’s body, and the operation of gendered power on and offstage. Analysis is situated in a wide contextual framework and reveals how reception and success depended on the performer’s response to the changing political, economic, social and cultural landscape as well as to developments in professional practice and organisation. The book concludes with discussion of the legacies of the performers, linking their experiences to the present-day situation.

Modern British imperial identity in the 1903 Delhi durbar’s exhibition of Indian art
Julie F. Codell

the exhibition and catalogue – to display and assert knowledge as power and to recuperate durbar costs and India’s debts – disguised imperial domination with a kinder, gentler blend of gentlemanly capitalism with aristocratic patronage. The exhibition became ‘at once the sign and the proof of reality’, to borrow Roland Barthes’s critique of nineteenth-century historical narrative. 154

in Cultural identities and the aesthetics of Britishness
William Roscoe, civic myths and the institutionalisation of urban culture
James Moore

one of gentlemanly capitalism, rather than industrial production.12 The city was also an important centre for the region’s aristocracy and gentry. As the major port in the region, it catered for sea-borne passenger traffic, and for those seeking the adventure of overseas travel it offered an alternative to a long overland and uncomfortable trip to Bristol or the English Channel ports. Landed families also shipped many of their luxury goods through Liverpool. The antique sculpture collectors Charles Townley and Henry Blundell both shipped parts of their collections

in High culture and tall chimneys