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After many years at the margins of historical investigation, the late medieval English gentry are widely regarded as an important and worthy subject for academic research. This book aims to explore the culture of the wide range of people whom we might include within the late medieval gentry, taking in all of landed society below the peerage, from knights down to gentlemen, and including those aspirants to gentility who might under traditional socio-economic terms be excluded from the group. It begins by exploring the origins of, and influences on, the culture of the late medieval gentry, thus contributing to the ongoing debate on defining the membership of this group. The book considers the gentry's emergence as a group distinct from the nobility, and looks at the various available routes to gentility. Through surveys of the gentry's military background, administrative and political roles, social behaviour, and education, it seeks to provide an overview of how the group's culture evolved, and how it was disseminated. The book offers a broad view of late medieval gentry culture, which explores, reassesses and indeed sometimes even challenges the idea that members of the gentry cultivated their own distinctive cultural identity. The evolution of the gentleman as a peer-assessed phenomenon, gentlemanly behaviour within the chivalric tradition, the education received by gentle children, and the surviving gentry correspondence are also discussed. Although the Church had an ambivalent attitude toward artistic expression, much of the gentry's involvement with the visual arts was religious in focus.

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Andrew Smith

susceptible to moral decline and physical disease. Different writers address this in different ways. For Samuel Smiles, for example, the loss of a masculine middle-class mode of gentlemanly behaviour would lead to economic, political, and national decline. However, Wilde embraced the possibility of an alternative type of gender politics with some enthusiasm. This is really another way of acknowledging that

in Victorian demons
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Raluca Radulescu

Malory’s story, with the authorship of ‘all the good termys of venery and of huntynge’, which ‘all maner jantylmen’ should be grateful for. 31 Time and again Malory’s original passages on gentlemanly topics have been regarded by critics as examples of an inflexible view of social distinctions. 32 Recent analyses of Malory’s Morte show, however, that he chose to describe gentlemanly behaviour in terms

in Gentry culture in late-medieval England
Raluca Radulescu and Alison Truelove

available to the gentry for demonstrating their gentle status, and shows the considerable effort necessary to maintain that status. In Chapter 2 , Keen locates gentlemanly behaviour within the chivalric tradition, concentrating on exploring the routes to gentility through service. He emphasises how military activity gradually gave way to civilian service, with law and

in Gentry culture in late-medieval England
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Emma Robinson-Tomsett

those who were unmarried, and which within the journey context were elaborately detailed by etiquette writers, but also partly because of women’s powerful personal beliefs j 194 J conclusion about what was appropriate and suitable in these encounters. Women would leave or rebuke, as Margaret Roberts did, men who they felt had transgressed the limits of decent, gentlemanly behaviour. Women were also acutely aware of the damaging and destructive effect an inappropriate involvement with a man would have on their standing amongst their fellow journeyers, which also

in Women, travel and identity
British and French ‘heroic imperialists’ as sites of memory
Berny Sèbe

of the two countries. Fashoda itself was an insignificant place, and following the Entente Cordiale the British were eager to bury any historical echo by discreetly renaming it ‘Kodok’. However, the two heroes who had met there, each after an epic but under-publicised odyssey, and whose gentlemanly behaviour made it possible to avert open conflict, established themselves as household

in Sites of imperial memory
English cricket and decolonisation
Mike Cronin and Richard Holt

Peter May, of Charterhouse and Cambridge, who was ‘something in the City’, with sporting idols of the 1960s such as George Best. Cricket, a game that had been so closely attached to the ideals of empire, fair play and gentlemanly behaviour, became deeply unfashionable. This shift in public sentiment, which was most apparent in the young, made the long-standing privileges and

in British culture and the end of empire
Rob Boddice

these men drove the political narratives that framed social prescriptions for proprietary actions – in effect, social practices – and defined what constituted gentlemanly behaviour – ethical and bodily practices – so they made the terms by which society had to conform. It would be fascinating, for example, to re-cast this age not as the Age of Reform, but as the Age of Dissatisfaction. For political and social change, and with it emotional and moral change, came from a sense of injustice in the ways in which the prescription makers did not represent the interests

in The history of emotions
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Arthur Aughey

example of English good sense and gentlemanly behaviour. This has had a wonderfully comforting effect and it became one of the broadbottomed wisdoms of English politics that revolution was counterproductive. Rather, English wisdom maintained that only a paradoxical conserving revolution was productive, like that propounded in the mythology of 1688 and Butterfield, like Barker, carried an essentially Victorian attitude into the modern democratic age (Soffer 1996: 14). The key to this attitude was the distinction between progressive change and revolution, a distinction

in The politics of Englishness
Open Access (free)
Janelle Joseph

man as a particularly gendered symbol of race power, citizenship and domination began during the decades around the turn of the century and were directly influenced by American and Victorian notions of national strength and gentlemanly behaviour (Stephens, 2005 ). By the middle of the twentieth century, black power was symbolised by a man in cricket pads wielding either a bat or a ball as his weapon of choice. Players and

in Sport in the Black Atlantic