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The Empire of Clouds in north-east India
Author: Andrew J. May

In 1841, the Welsh sent their first missionary, Thomas Jones, to evangelise the tribal peoples of the Khasi Hills of north-east India. This book follows Jones from rural Wales to Cherrapunji, the wettest place on earth and now one of the most Christianised parts of India. It is about the piety and practices, the perceptions and prejudices of people in early nineteenth century Wales. The book is also about the ways in which the religious ambitions of those same people operated upon the lives and ideas of indigenous societies of the distant Khasi Hills of north-eastern India. It foregrounds broader political, scientific, racial and military ideologies that mobilised the Khasi Hills into an interconnected network of imperial control. Its themes are universal: crises of authority, the loneliness of geographical isolation, sexual scandal, greed and exploitation, personal and institutional dogma, individual and group morality. In analysing the individual lives that flash in and out of this history, the book is a performance within the effort to break down the many dimensions of distance that the imperial scene prescribes. It pays attention to a 'networked conception of imperial interconnection'. The book discusses Jones's evangelising among the Khasis as well as his conflicts with church and state authority. It also discusses some aspects of the micro-politics of mission and state in the two decades immediately following Thomas Jones's death. While the Welsh missionary impact was significant, its 'success' or indeed its novelty, needs to be measured against the pre-existing activities of British imperialists.

Lynn Abrams

. Geographical isolation and Norse influences were widely credited with influencing Shetland’s ‘otherness’. The people spoke with a ‘peculiar accent’19 and were described by the Revd Reith, visiting around 1900, as ‘hard-featured and weather beaten, scraggy, lean and bony’.20 The young women of the island of Papa Stour, who were observed carrying home peats with ponies, were described as ‘picturesque’ in Chambers’ Journal of 1889, in contrast with the older women, who looked ‘Moorish’ with their heads covered with black shawls.21 Walter Scott, during an excursion to Shetland

in Myth and materiality in a woman’s world
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The birth and growth of major religions

What do we really know of the origins and first spread of major monotheistic religions, once we strip away the myths and later traditions that developed? Creating God uses modern critical historical scholarship alongside archaeology to describe the times and places which saw the emergence of Mormonism, Islam, Christianity, Judaism and Zoroastrianism. What was the social, economic and political world in which they began, and the framework of other contemporary religious movements in which they could flourish? What was their historical background and what was their geographical setting? Written from a secular viewpoint, the author reveals where a scholarly approach to the history of religions may diverge from the assumptions of faith, and shows the value of comparing different movements and different histories in one account. Throughout history, many individuals have believed that they were in direct contact with a divine source, receiving direction to spread a religious message. A few persuaded others and developed a following, and a small minority of such movements grew into full religions. In time, these movements developed, augmented, selected and invented their own narratives of foundation: stories about the founders’ lives and the early stages in which their religious group emerged. Modern critical scholarship helps us understand something of how a successful religion could emerge, thrive and begin the journey to become a world faith. This book presents a narrative to interest, challenge and intrigue readers interested in the beginnings of some of the most powerful ideas that have influenced human history.

Philip M. Taylor

-Atlantic flight, which heralded the beginning of the end of North America’s geographic isolation from Europe. With the rapid development of international civil aviation routes, the world was becoming more like a global village. The telephone also contributed to the feeling of a shrinking world, and in 1927 communication was established across the Atlantic by radio telephone. In the same year, the British Broadcasting Company became the British Broadcasting Corporation with the motto ‘Nation shall speak peace unto Nation’ and, within five years, the BBC had initiated its Empire

in Munitions of the Mind
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Becky Taylor

Such self-assertion through a manipulation of settled society’s negative images of Travellers was a consistent theme throughout the century. From the 1960s it was reinforced by the increasing social and geographical isolation of Travellers. The location of both official sites and temporary stopping places on peri-urban land, often far away from residential areas, reduced contact between Travellers and the settled population. At the same time, increased harassment from councils, the police and local residents caused Travellers to stop in larger groups: ‘if three or

in A minority and the state
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Andrew J. May

explored in the context of geographical isolation, interpersonal rivalry and competing ideologies of mission. These scandals erupt in the final section of the book, an appraisal of the complex and divergent ways in which ideologies of mission and the rule of law were interpreted on the frontier. In putting the geographically and archivally inaccessible Cherrapunji at the centre of an imperial history, I am

in Welsh missionaries and British imperialism
Angela Harutyunyan

Soviet positivist perception of technologies as tools to advance a grand social and/or economic cause. But it was also based upon the dominant urge within mainstream society to preserve the ‘purity’ of national culture.34 It is telling that the first loud advocate of IT development in Armenia was the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. This could lead us to claim that IT was perceived as a gateway to overcoming the geographical isolation in which Armenia had found itself since the early 1990s: it would provide virtual communication with the outside world. This would

in The political aesthetics of the Armenian avant-garde
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Jonathan Rayner

Cars That Ate Paris ). The only qualification of this might be that the human environment (the social construct in either the rural or urban setting) is conceived as vitiated or perverse in itself (as in Summerfield and Heatwave ), and that geographical isolation (of the rural communities, the coastal cities and the island continent itself) merely reveals inherent characteristics. This caveat allows the incorporation of period films which embody a Gothic criticism of establishment authority and its relationship with the

in Contemporary Australian cinema
Věra Stojarová

and geographical isolation during the twentieth century vis-à-vis the rest of the European continent, Albania has taken a fairly specific developmental route, something which is reflected in the formation of its political outlook. As in other cases, here, too, tight ties between the extreme Right and extreme nationalist currents may be sought, arising in the Albanian environment during the first decades of the twentieth century as a reaction to regional development. One organization which may be counted here is Homeland (Atdheu), a radical national association

in The Far Right in the Balkans
Diaspora for development?
Mark Boyle, Rob Kitchin, and Delphine Ancien

and the social, economic, political and cultural consequences of a shrinking population; for New Zealand, the diaspora is seen as a means of countering geographical isolation from the global economy; for Armenia, the diaspora is being seen as a resource in the reassertion and reclamation of a post-Soviet national identity and trajectory; for India and China, diasporic groups are being deployed to broker integration into the global economy at a moment when the global distribution of power is being realigned; while for Mexico, the efficient harnessing of diasporic

in Migrations