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Geographies of transnational solidarity

This book provides a critical investigation of what has been termed the ‘global justice movement’. Through a detailed study of a grassroots peasants' network in Asia (People's Global Action); an international trade union network (the International Federation of Chemical, Energy, Mining and General Workers); and the Social Forum process, it analyses some of the global justice movement's component parts, operational networks and their respective dynamics, strategies and practices. The authors argue that the emergence of new globally connected forms of collective action against neoliberal globalisation are indicative of a range of variously place-specific forms of political agency that coalesce across geographic space at particular times, in specific places and in a variety of ways. They also argue that, rather than being indicative of a coherent ‘movement’, such forms of political agency contain many political and geographical fissures and fault-lines, and are best conceived of as ‘global justice networks’: overlapping, interacting, competing and differentially placed and resourced networks that articulate demands for social, economic and environmental justice. Such networks, and the social movements that comprise them, characterise emergent forms of trans-national political agency. The authors argue that the role of key geographical concepts of space, place and scale are crucial to an understanding of the operational dynamics of such networks. Such an analysis challenges key current assumptions in the literature about the emergence of a global civil society.

Geographical dynamics and convergence spaces
Paul Routledge and Andrew Cumbers

5217P GLOBAL JUSTICE-PT/lb.qxd 13/1/09 19:59 Page 76 4 Global justice networks: geographical dynamics and convergence spaces This chapter is concerned with analysing how the operational dynamics of GJNs are acted out across geographic space. The spatiality of GJNs concerns both the geographical context in which they operate (e.g. the conditions, opportunities and constraints that they face) and the strategies that they employ. It concerns the myriad ongoing connections that combine different parts of the world together (by connecting different place

in Global justice networks
Operational logics and strategies
Paul Routledge and Andrew Cumbers

5217P GLOBAL JUSTICE-PT/lb.qxd 13/1/09 19:59 Page 48 3 Global justice networks: operational logics and strategies Given the aforementioned variety of political actors and strategic foci of GJNs, detailed in Chapter 2, it is perhaps unsurprising that they comprise a series of political, operational and geographical ‘fault-lines’. These include differences between ideological (e.g. Marxist, Feminist, Socialist, Social Democratic, Anarchist) and post-ideological (e.g. autonomist) positionalities; reformist and radical political agendas; the resource and power

in Global justice networks
Paul Routledge and Andrew Cumbers

5217P GLOBAL JUSTICE-PT/lb.qxd 13/1/09 19:59 Page 28 2 Networks, global civil society and global justice networks In this chapter our purpose is to fuse together recent theorisations about the resistance to neoliberalism with broader debates that seek to conceptualise changes in society more generally, stemming from processes of globalisation. The latter, typified by the work of Manuel Castells, perceive of a fundamental qualitative shift in both the organisation and relations of human society brought about by globalisation processes. The network concept has

in Global justice networks
Paul Routledge and Andrew Cumbers

reject the consumerism and militarism of mainstream society (St Clair, 1999; Brecher et al., 2000; Gill, 2000; Klein, 2000, 2002; Starr, 2000; Bircham and Charlton, 2001; Callinicos, 2003; Kaldor, 2003; 5217P GLOBAL JUSTICE-PT/lb.qxd 2 13/1/09 19:59 Page 2 GLOBAL JUSTICE NETWORKS Drainville, 2004; Tormey, 2004a). However, there remains considerable conceptual fuzziness and wishful-thinking about the GJM. In particular, there has been a lack of detailed scrutiny about its component parts, its operational networks and their dynamics, strategies and practices (but

in Global justice networks
Paul Routledge and Andrew Cumbers

. (Morales, 1998: 125)1 Our concern in this book has been to go beyond the simplistic and superficial gloss on the growing resistance to neoliberal globalisation as an emergent global civil society. In the preceding chapters we have done this by critiquing existing discourses and developing our own conceptualisation of Global Justice Networks (GJNs) which we have then grounded through three case studies: PGA (Asia), ICEM and the Social Forum process. We consider each of these examples of GJNs, comprising differentially-placed and resourced social movements, trade unions

in Global justice networks
Peasant solidarity as horizontal networking?
Paul Routledge and Andrew Cumbers

to resist corporate domination through civil disobedience and people-oriented constructive actions. PGA has established regional networks – e.g. PGA Latin America, PGA Europe, PGA North America and PGA Asia – to decentralise the everyday workings of the 5217P GLOBAL JUSTICE-PT/lb.qxd 104 13/1/09 19:59 Page 104 GLOBAL JUSTICE NETWORKS convergence. It purports to be an example of horizontal networking (cf. Juris, 2004a), an issue that we will discuss in depth below. PGA Asia as a convergence space As we will discuss below, the PGA Asia convergence space

in Global justice networks
Paul Routledge and Andrew Cumbers

South – the 2004 Forum was held in Mumbai. The 2005 Forum returned to Porto Alegre before the decision to hold a decentred fora in Mali, Pakistan and Venezuela in 2006. The 2007 Forum was held in Nairobi and 5217P GLOBAL JUSTICE-PT/lb.qxd 174 13/1/09 19:59 Page 174 GLOBAL JUSTICE NETWORKS drew around 75,000 participants (see http://wsf2007.org/, last accessed 28 June 2007). The next WSF is planned for 2009 with a global week of action scheduled for January 2008. More than any other development, the WSF process has come to embody the new democratic and

in Global justice networks
Labour internationalism as vertical networking?
Paul Routledge and Andrew Cumbers

. Since its inception, it has mutated numerous times, due to political and economic changes, mergers and reorganisations within the union movement itself. In its current form, it represents the merger – in 1995 – of the International Chemical and Energy Federation (ICEF) with the MIF (the International 5217P GLOBAL JUSTICE-PT/lb.qxd 140 13/1/09 19:59 Page 140 GLOBAL JUSTICE NETWORKS Mining Federation). In its founding declaration, ICEM commits itself to a ‘focus on achieving practical results and gains for its members. Strength is its sinew, service its duty

in Global justice networks
The London left and the 1984–85 miners’ strike
Diarmaid Kelliher

, Reading Cultures and the Women’s Liberation Movement in Great Britain, C. 1974–2000’, History Workshop Journal, 81/1 (2016), pp. 171–96, p. 172. A. Wakefield, The Miners’ Strike Day by Day: The Illustrated 1984–85 Diary of Yorkshire Miner Arthur Wakefield (Barnsley: Wharncliffe, 2002), p. 160; Kelliher, ‘Solidarity and Sexuality’; La Rose, ‘Letter to the Miners Families Christmas Appeal’. Networks of solidarity 143 96 P. Routledge and A. Cumbers, Global Justice Networks: Geographies of Transnational Solidarity (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2009), p

in Waiting for the revolution