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Lewis Hine’s Photographs of Refugees for the American Red Cross, 1918–20
Sonya de Laat

) and with aid agencies centrally featured providing aid to forcibly displaced individuals. Taking a historical look at representations of refugees and a critical look at Hine’s World War I photography made for the American Red Cross thickens what has otherwise remained a very thin area of scholarship on this collection of the celebrated photographer’s work. Likewise, these photographs take on a new significance in the current era of unparalleled global migration, providing an important lens for gaining perspective on the present. Over the past century, the figure

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Elite European migrants in the British Empire
Author: Panikos Panayi

While most of the Germans who suffered expulsion during the First World War lived within British shores, the Royal Navy brought Germans from throughout the world to face incarceration in the their network of camp. This book offers a new interpretation of global migration from the early nineteenth until the early twentieth century. It examines the elite German migrants who progressed to India, especially missionaries, scholars and scientists, businessmen and travellers. The book investigates the reasons for the migration of Germans to India. An examination of the realities of German existence in India follows. It then examines the complex identities of the Germans in India in the century before the First World War. The role of the role of racism, orientalism and Christianity is discussed. The stereotypes that emerged from travelogues include: an admiration of Indian landscapes; contempt for Hinduism; criticism of the plight of women; and repulsion at cityscapes. The book moves to focus upon the transformation which took place as a result of this conflict, mirroring the plight of Germans in other parts of the world. The marginalisation which took place in 1920 closely mirrored the plight of the German communities throughout the British Empire. The unique aspect of the experience in India consisted of the birth of a national identity. Finally, the book places the experience of the Germans in India into four contexts: the global history of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries; German history; history of the British Empire in India; and Indian history.

Emma Tennant’s Thornfield Hall, Jasper Fforde’s The Eyre Affair and Gail Jones’s Sixty Lights
Alexandra Lewis

dealing critically with perceived blind spots), ‘many famous re-​writings’ of Brontë’s novel ‘focus on a heterosexual love relationship’ either to deconstruct its myth or reinforce its ubiquity (Rubik and Mettinger-​Schartmann, 2007: 12). Gail Jones’s Sixty Lights, a complex refiguration of narrative inheritance and exploration of what is obscured behind ‘memorable patterns’, not only focuses on the nature of love, and embodied emotion, but also deals directly with the modes of intergenerational and global migrations of meaning that have affected cultural (and personal

in Charlotte Brontë
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Legal cartographies of migration and mobility
Ayelet Shachar

rapid changes. 12 This book begins to fill this lacuna. The theoretical landscape and the road ahead The shift in perspective I propose—from the more familiar locus of studying the movement of people across borders to critically investigating the movement of borders to regulate the mobility of people —reveals a paradigmatic and paradoxical shift in the political imagination and implementation of the sovereign authority to screen and manage global migration flows in a world filled with multiple sources of law: formal and informal, hard and soft, local, national

in The shifting border
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Eric Richards

up to ninety day labourers commonly out of employ: in 1831 an assisted parish scheme caused fifty-six of the poor to emigrate from Benenden.9 This, however, was highly unusual and a tiny component of the emerging emigrant flows across the country. Strong support for the discontinuity thesis comes from the quantitative historians Hatton and Williamson. They see a clear discontinuity in the decades after 1820 when, they claim, ‘global migrations changed dramatically’. There was ‘a regime change in world migrations’ – in scale, composition and freedom. Mass emigration

in The genesis of international mass migration
Creations of diasporic aesthetics and migratory imagery in Chinese Australian Art
Birgit Mersmann

Global migration and the diasporisation of Chinese art The increasing diasporisation of art and culture is a far-reaching and profound shift resulting from global migration and its rapidly changing nature. As a global transnational process, migration has produced global diasporas (Cohen, 1997 ) that fuel the dissemination of ‘diasporic imaginaries’ (Mishra, 1996 ). To take account of these developments, diaspora research has undergone a process of reorientation over recent decades. Along with transcending the limiting classical notions of diaspora as

in Art and migration
Suriname under Dutch rule, 1750– 1950

Explaining how leprosy was considered in various historical settings by referring to categories of uncleanliness in antiquity, is problematic. The book historicizes how leprosy has been framed and addressed. It investigates the history of leprosy in Suriname, a plantation society where the vast majority of the population consisted of imported slaves from Africa. The relationship between the modern stigmatization and exclusion of people affected with leprosy, and the political tensions and racial fears originating in colonial slave society, exerting their influence until after the decolonization up to the present day. The book explores leprosy management on the black side of the medical market in the age of slavery as contrasted with the white side. The difference in perspectives on leprosy between African slaves and European masters contributed to the development of the 'Great Confinement' policies, and leprosy sufferers were sent to the Batavia leprosy asylum. Dutch debates about leprosy took place when the threat of a 'return' of leprosy to the Netherlands appeared to materialise. A symbiotic alliance for leprosy care that had formed between the colonial state and the Catholics earlier in the nineteenth century was renegotiated within the transforming landscape of Surinamese society to incorporate Protestants as well. By 1935, Dutch colonial medicine had dammed the growing danger of leprosy by using the modern policies of detection and treatment. Dutch doctors and public health officials tried to come to grips with the Afro-Surinamese belief in treef and its influence on the execution of public health policies.

Abstract only
Stephen Snelders

in tropical regions, or of other people of colour, continue to include traces of our colonial heritage? Recognizing and analysing these traces of colonial heritage and exploring the perspectives of other cultures are essential when investigating health and disease. This is significant since global migration movements make the permeability of boundaries and transmission of humans, and therefore diseases, more common then perhaps ever before in human history. Notes 1 M. Hardt and T. Negri, Empire (Cambridge:  Harvard University Press, 2000), pp. 135–​6. 2 K

in Leprosy and colonialism
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Victoria Kelley

‘precariat’ have all served to make small-scale entrepreneurialism, on the streets or elsewhere, a topical issue, and not an inevitably nostalgic one. Stedman Jones raised the (for him) unresolved question of whether immigrants (he names the Irish and Jewish specifically) were incorporated into or excluded from the idea of the ‘cockney’. I have argued that the historical street markets always retained the potential to hybridise culture across ethnicity, but in the present too mass movements of global migration again point to the persistence of the informal economy, and the

in Cheap Street
An interview with Leslie Ureña
Bénédicte Miyamoto and Marie Ruiz

photography. It might provide more context, more empathy, but the visual medium can only provide additional information, not mediate an experience. Editors: Documentary photography on global migration seems to have generally favoured a perspective framed by trauma and forced displacement … Leslie Ureña: Yes – and any photograph that shows suffering, that chooses suffering for its subject, that is emotional, it can be dangerous – or should I say tricky – even more so in our time of heightened dissemination. I’d like to think that these migration projects start from a

in Art and migration