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General Faidherbe’s Senegalese chimera
Leland Conley Barrows

? Gold from the interior of West Africa was a major component of the trans-Sahara trade from antiquity onwards. That the Western Sudan might be the site of one or more El Dorados was suggested by the extravagant gifts of gold dust and nuggets made by Mansa Musa, the ruler of Mali and his entourage, when they passed through Cairo in 1324 on their way to Mecca. As early modern Europe became increasingly

in Imperial expectations and realities
Oonagh McDonald

Chapter 8 Gold and silver fixing A little history How and why did London become the centre of the gold and silver markets? The story begins with Moses Mocatta, then in a partnership with the East India Company, who began shipping gold to London in the late seventeenth century. He founded the first bullion brokerage in 1671, which became Mocatta & Goldsmid in 1783, when Asher Goldsmid joined the company. In 1697 the firm established a bullion vault for the first of the gold rushes in Brazil. Abraham Mocatta took over the business from his father in 1693 and

in Holding bankers to account
Marika Sherwood

Why did the Cold War begin in the Gold Coast (today’s Ghana) in 1948? 1 As I recount in great detail in my book Kwame Nkrumah and the Dawn of the Cold War: The West African National Secretariat (1945–48) , it was because the ‘Western’ imperialist, capitalist powers wanted to stop, or at least control, the struggle for independence. But, as the Second World War had just ended, it would not have looked good to fight a ‘real’ war against the independistas , whether they were called that, or

in The Red and the Black
The Garda Síochána Ombudsman Commission and Garda accountability
Vicky Conway

The events in Donegal were the final catalyst in the reform of the Garda Síochána Complaints Board (GSCB) and the establishment of the Garda Síochána Ombudsman Commission (GSOC). This chapter explores that change and analyses its significance. Its establishment is contextualised with critical discussion of police governance and accountability, paying particular attention to complaints systems and their role in police oversight. The chapter provides a review of police complaints systems in Ireland. It argues that the reforms to the complaints mechanism are predominantly procedural in nature. The GSOC's annual reports provide information based on which its contribution to police accountability and the state of police accountability more broadly in Ireland can be critically analysed. Analysis based on complaints per 1,000 gardaí, which can account for changing garda numbers since the recession, reveals that despite the increase, complaints against the gardaí remain low compared with police forces in England and Wales.

in Defining events
Eleanor Dobson

This essay proposes that a number of the concerns expressed in Dracula can be read through Bram Stoker’s employment of the imagery of precious metals and jewels. Focusing on the materiality of place – the treasure-laced landscape of Transylvania and the cliffs of Whitby famous for their reserves of jet – and the association between these materials and vampirism, I argue that analysing the symbolism of precious materials leads to a fuller understanding of many of the novel’s key anxieties. Not only does this analysis demonstrate Stoker’s elaborate use of jewel imagery in developing the notion of the female vampire as a hard, penetrative woman, it identifies the imperial implications of the trade in precious materials. In doing so, it claims that Stoker employs a ‘language of jewels’ in Dracula, through which he critiques the imperialistic plundering of Eastern lands, and demonstrates how these monsters – intimately entwined with these materials – attempt a rejection of Western appropriation.

Gothic Studies
A decade of market manipulation, regulatory failures and regulatory reforms
Author: Oonagh McDonald

This book provides a compelling account of the rigging of benchmarks during and after the financial crisis of 2007–8. Written in clear language accessible to the non-specialist, it provides the historical context necessary for understanding the benchmarks – LIBOR, in the foreign exchange market and the Gold and Silver Fixes – and shows how and why they have to be reformed in the face of rapid technological changes in markets. Though banks have been fined and a few traders have been jailed, justice will not be done until senior bankers are made responsible for their actions. Provocative and rigorously argued, this book makes concrete recommendations for improving the security of the financial services industry and holding bankers to account.

Remaking the ethnographic museum in the global contemporary
Viv Golding and Wayne Modest

6 Thinking and working through difference: remaking the ethnographic museum in the global contemporary Viv Golding and Wayne Modest Introduction: anxiety politics and museums In this chapter, we reflect on ways that museums might, as Audre Lorde put it, take our differences and work through them as our strengths.1 This has been a long-term project for both of us, starting from our individual positioning and alliances and situated knowledge(s) shifting over time and place, as we work in shifting institutional frameworks and with diverse collaborators globally

in Curatopia
Hilary Golder and Diane Kirkby

The implications of married women’s property reform for the marriage contract, and the anxiety which they created among colonial politicians is discussed in Hilary Golder and Diane Kirkby, ‘Unmarrying Wives: Divorce and Married Women’s Property Reform in Colonial Australia,’ paper presented to the Australian Historical Association Conference, Hobart

in Law, history, colonialism
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Government, Authority and Control, 1830–1940

From the Victorian period to the present, images of the policeman have played a prominent role in the literature of empire, shaping popular perceptions of colonial policing. This book covers and compares the different ways and means that were employed in policing policies from 1830 to 1940. Countries covered range from Ireland, Australia, Africa and India to New Zealand and the Caribbean. As patterns of authority, of accountability and of consent, control and coercion evolved in each colony the general trend was towards a greater concentration of police time upon crime. The most important aspect of imperial linkage in colonial policing was the movement of personnel from one colony to another. To evaluate the precise role of the 'Irish model' in colonial police forces is at present probably beyond the powers of any one scholar. Policing in Queensland played a vital role in the construction of the colonial social order. In 1886 the constabulary was split by legislation into the New Zealand Police Force and the standing army or Permanent Militia. The nature of the British influence in the Klondike gold rush may be seen both in the policy of the government and in the actions of the men sent to enforce it. The book also overviews the role of policing in guarding the Gold Coast, police support in 1954 Sudan, Orange River Colony, Colonial Mombasa and Kenya, as well as and nineteenth-century rural India.