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The armed forces of the colonial powers c. 1700–1964

For imperialists, the concept of guardian is specifically to the armed forces that kept watch on the frontiers and in the heartlands of imperial territories. Large parts of Asia and Africa, and the islands of the Pacific and the Caribbean were imperial possessions. This book discusses how military requirements and North Indian military culture, shaped the cantonments and considers the problems posed by venereal diseases and alcohol, and the sanitary strategies pursued to combat them. The trans-border Pathan tribes remained an insistent problem in Indian defence between 1849 and 1947. The book examines the process by which the Dutch elite recruited military allies, and the contribution of Indonesian soldiers to the actual fighting. The idea of naval guardianship as expressed in the campaign against the South Pacific labour trade is examined. The book reveals the extent of military influence of the Schutztruppen on the political developments in the German protectorates in German South-West Africa and German East Africa. The U.S. Army, charged with defending the Pacific possessions of the Philippines and Hawaii, encountered a predicament similar to that of the mythological Cerberus. The regimentation of military families linked access to women with reliable service, and enabled the King's African Rifles to inspire a high level of discipline in its African soldiers, askaris. The book explains the political and military pressures which drove successive French governments to widen the scope of French military operations in Algeria between 1954 and 1958. It also explores gender issues and African colonial armies.

The Royal Navy and the South Pacific labour trade
Jane Samson

Britain, through her navy, as the guardian of Christian humanity in the South Pacific. A well-known phenomenon for British social and political historians, humanitarianism in the Royal Navy has received little attention, except in the most visible context of Britain’s African anti-slavery campaign. Ever since the publication of Eric Williams’ Capitalism and Slavery in 1944, 6 humanitarianism and its role

in Guardians of empire
Susan Strange

Chapter 9 Our international guardians With national regulators caught  – as the last chapter related  – in the midst of change brought on by forces of financial innovation and integration beyond their control, attention shifts to the possibilities of internationally negotiated systems of control. Finance is not, of course, the only policy area where social and economic problems have outgrown the limits of state authority. Global warming, forestry management, enforcing competition over monopolies, property rights and the political rights of dissidents are some

in Mad Money
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David Killingray

, individual naval commanders in the South Pacific had even assumed the role of guardians of Christian humanity. 7 Naval power came to exemplify Britain’s imperial power. The fall of the naval base at Singapore in February 1942 was therefore a fatal blow to imperial prestige and to future pretensions of power in South-East Asia. At the same time it indicated to Australia and New Zealand that their future defence

in Guardians of empire
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Cholera, collectivity and the care of the social body
Michael Brown

5 Guardians of health: cholera, collectivity and the care of the social body This establishment [the York Medical Society] alone reflects honour to the faculty in York – this alone is a light so luminous that its vivifying influence is already felt among the members of the profession at large. ‘A Medical Pupil’, York Herald, 20 October 1832 I [T]he scientific physician enlarges the sphere of his enquiries, the good of men is his great object – the end of all his labours being to prevent moral and corporeal disease, to alleviate pain, to restore health. They

in Performing medicine
American foreign policy and Irish nationalism, 1865–70
Bernadette Whelan

4 ‘Our Guardian Angel abroad’:* American foreign policy and Irish nationalism, 1865–70 A critical feature of post-famine emigration to the United States was identified by Edward Brooks, US Consul in Cork in 1881; departing Irish saw themselves as forced to flee ‘from ‘hated British rule’.1 Bringing such sentiments with them augmented the Anglophobia of much of IrishAmerica, revived the American dimension to the nationalist struggle in Ireland and posed a difficulty in the US–British diplomatic relationship which forced an elucidation by American political

in American government in Ireland, 1790–1913
Bulletin of the John Rylands Library
Urban citizenship struggles and the racialised outsider
Ben Rogaly

4 ‘We’re not just guardians of the area but of the whole city’: urban citizenship struggles and the racialised outsider Introduction Charles Wood, a sixty-something businessman, remembered working as a teenager in the potato harvest in fields on the eastern edge of Peterborough. His family were Travelling Showmen who had spent large parts of each summer on the road running fairground entertainments. When Charles was six they moved their winter base to Peterborough. He recalled the potato-picking work as being: ‘very, very cold’. He didn’t want to be doing the

in Stories from a migrant city
Confining women at sea
Frances Steel

Women were initially employed in the mid-nineteenth century to act as shipboard representatives for female emigrants, to aid them with seasickness and other intimate concerns. In the Union Steam Ship Company of New Zealand (USSCo.) there were limited opportunities for women to work at sea attending to female passengers. The USSCo. complex stitched communities together across shipboard and shore. On large passenger liners the providore department was usually the largest afloat, staffed by a team of stewards, stewardesses, cooks and other kitchen staff. The stewardesses of the Wairarapa could be honoured in photographs and monuments because they followed the predetermined script of appropriate femininity on board. In her work on American whaling men, Margaret Creighton has examined the ship as an institution of masculine indoctrination. The feminisation of ships has a long history in the West, first referenced in the Oxford English Dictionary in 1375.

in Oceania under steam
Taking the role of non-governmental organisations in customary international lawmaking seriously
Valentina Azarova

The chapter offers a constructivist account of the burgeoning roles non-governmental organisations have assumed in the making of customary international law. While most of these roles are informal, and their influence on the content and interpretation of customary international law norms has been primarily indirect, non-governmental organisations do contribute to the formation of customary international law through an increasingly diverse set of activities. Non-governmental organisation documentation, litigation, lobbying, and other forms of advocacy have contributed to treaty-making and ratification; to the domestication and internalisation of international norms and processes, including domestic accountability and remedies; and to codifying the obligations of, and stimulating practice by non-State actors such as business and armed groups. Despite a broad acknowledgement of the increasing involvement of non-governmental organisations in global governance by scholars and practitioners, their role in customary international lawmaking remains under-appreciated. To understand the increased influence of non-governmental organisations on the identification, formation, and application of customary international law rules, the chapter offers a differentiated, effects-based account of non-governmental organisation participation in customary international lawmaking.

in International organisations, non-State actors, and the formation of customary international law