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Zoë Thomas

1 Clubhouses and guild halls T he formation of the Women’s Guild of Arts in 1907 was a revolutionary moment for women art workers in England. On a winter’s evening in December, the Guild’s first official meeting took place in a Hall at Clifford’s Inn, Fleet Street, London. Mary Seton Watts chaired the event, which was packed with guests who had come to hear speeches from members of the nascent Guild and – intriguingly – from members of the male-only Art Workers’ Guild who had ‘kindly lent’ the Hall for the evening. Stained-glass designer Mary Lowndes and the

in Women art workers and the Arts and Crafts movement
Zoë Thomas

5 Out of the guild hall and into the city F or the 1916 Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society exhibition, held at the height of the First World War, the Women’s Guild of Arts was asked to decorate a room with the work of members, to represent the Guild to the public. The exhibition was held at Burlington House, home of the Royal Academy. This was an intriguing turn of events for the Society, its exhibitors, and the public, symbolising the acceptance of the Arts and Crafts by ‘the establishment’ to an unprecedented extent.1 The letter sent by the Society to members

in Women art workers and the Arts and Crafts movement
Bulletin of the John Rylands Library
Bulletin of the John Rylands Library
Belief and the shaping of medieval society
Author: Paul Fouracre

In early Christianity it was established that every church should have a light burning on the altar at all times. This unique study is about the material and social consequences of maintaining eternal lights. Never before has the subject been treated as important to the political economy, nor has it been explored over the whole medieval period. The cost of maintaining the lights meant that only the elite could afford to do so, and peasants were organised to provide funds for the lights. Later, as society became wealthier, a wider range of people became providers and organised themselves into guilds or confraternities in support of the church and with the particular aim of commemorating their members. Power over the lights, and over individual churches, shifted to these organisations, and, when belief in the efficacy of burning lights was challenged in the Reformation, it was such people who were capable of bringing the practice of burning eternal lights to a sudden and sometimes violent end. The study concludes that the practice of keeping a flame on the altar did indeed have important material and cultural consequences. Because it examines the relation between belief and materiality at every turn, the book also works as a guide to the way in which Western Europe developed, from the decline of the Roman Empire to the advent of the Protestant state.

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Gervase Rosser

associations of craftsmen, the guilds or fraternities of the medieval town brought together men and women working in various crafts, to serve ends which included both mutual insurance and public charity. 1 That charity needs to be considered not merely for its significant yet limited impact on the actual needs of the poor, but also and more profoundly as an expression of mutual concern and common identity. The first two documents in the

in Towns in medieval England
Samuel K. Cohn, Jr

Charles de la Roncière, 7 Samuel Cohn, Jr, 8 John Najemy, 9 Alessandro Stella, 10 and Richard Trexler 11 have attributed more originality to the Ciompi – their social and economic demands, monetary and employment policies, and the creation of three new revolutionary guilds composed of workmen, which granted rights to previously disenfranchised men and women and gave them a voice in

in Popular protest in late-medieval Europe
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Mark O’Brien

Ministry of Justice … will not be communicated … to organisations which have the declared object of destroying the democratic Government of the Irish Republic and replacing it with a Godless totalitarianism?26 The Guild of Irish Journalists The following year, the Communist scare continued to put a strain on the NUJ’s Dublin branch. The imprisonment of Cardinal József Mindszenty by the Hungarian Communist government was condemned by the branch; it noted that, ‘as Christians and as trade unionists’, it wished the Hungarian people ‘a speedy end to their tribulation and

in The Fourth Estate
Mairi Cowan

After its lament for the dead, the bell of St Giles summoned the living. Those who heeded its call of ‘vivos voco’ often performed their religious activities in groups, gathering themselves together to participate in corporate Christianity. The groups into which people gathered were not entirely separate or divergent. Stirling’s incoming Dean of Guild, for example, was

in Death, life, and religious change in Scottish towns, c.1350–1560
Trevor Dean

, ‘spectacular’. Population growth was so strong that before 1300 several cities had to limit immigration from the countryside. Guilds proliferated as specialised groups of producers came together. The use and stock of money expanded enormously as mints multiplied in number and issued new coins which became the standard units of international trade. Ports – Pisa, Venice, Genoa – developed their maritime trade

in The towns of Italy in the later Middle Ages