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Globalising kosher and halal markets
Authors: John Lever and Johan Fischer

Over the last two decades, global demand for kosher products has been growing steadily, and many non-religious consumers view kosher as a healthy food option: in the US over 60 per cent of kosher food consumption is linked to non-religious values associated with health and food quality. This book explores the emergence and expansion of global kosher and halal markets with a particular focus on the UK and Denmark. While Kosher is a Hebrew term meaning 'fit' or 'proper', halal is an Arabic word that literally means 'permissible' or 'lawful'. The book discusses the manufacture and production of kosher and halal meat (both red meat and poultry) with specific reference to audits/inspections, legislation, networking, product innovation and certification. It draws on contemporary empirical material to explore kosher and halal comparatively at different levels of the social scale, such as individual consumption, the marketplace, religious organisations and the state. It compares the major markets for kosher/halal in the UK with those in Denmark, where kosher/halal are important to smaller groups of religious consumers. Denmark plays an important role in biotechnology that is compatible with what we call kosher/halal transnational governmentality. The book explores how Jewish and Muslim consumers in the UK and Denmark understand and practice kosher consumption in their everyday lives. It also explores how 'compound practice' links eating with issues such as health and spirituality, for example, and with the influence of secularism and ritual.

Abstract only
John Lever and Johan Fischer

169 Conclusion In focusing on the consequences of globalising kosher and halal markets, this book has demonstrated that similarities and differences between kosher and halal consumption, production and regulation in different national contexts are not well understood, and that to better understand global kosher and halal markets they must be explored at different levels of the social scale. This conclusion is organised around the three keywords of the book’s title:  religion, regulation and consumption. We conclude on these themes by bringing in a few examples

in Religion, regulation, consumption
The case of Maghrebi Muslims in France
Florence Bergeaud-Blackler

religious definition. In the first part of this discussion I sketch a brief history of the development of the halal market from its origins in France, taking the region of Bordeaux (in south-west France) as an example,9 and showing, notably, that the Muslim authorities took very little part in that development. Lacking a definition of what is unique to halal meat, the halal market grew relatively rapidly. In the second part I give my reasons for suggesting that the end-consumer, through the retailer, possesses control over the definition of the halal quality of meat. In

in Qualities of food
Abstract only
Global kosher and halal markets
John Lever and Johan Fischer

1 Introduction: global kosher and halal markets Over the last two decades or so the global markets for kosher and halal food, particularly meat, have grown rapidly. Kosher is a Hebrew term meaning ‘fit’ or ‘proper’ and halal is an Arabic word that literally means ‘permissible’ or ‘lawful’. This book explores the emergence and expansion of global kosher and halal markets with a particular focus on the UK and Denmark. This is the first book of its kind drawing on contemporary empirical material to explore kosher and halal comparatively at different levels of the

in Religion, regulation, consumption
John Lever and Johan Fischer

of the supply chain and have stringent processes of quality control. The hindquarters of the cattle are sometimes sold into the conventional market unlabelled and Shechita UK is currently involved in an initiative to overcome this problem, and the theological differences involved, by selling this meat on to the halal market. In 2010 LBS supervised the slaughter of 90,000 cattle, 90,000 sheep and 1.5 million poultry. A list of licensed outlets is available on the organisation’s website (see www.shechita.org/​licensed-​suppliers), but the abattoirs where shechita is

in Religion, regulation, consumption
John Lever and Johan Fischer

authorities –​was called upon to respond to a Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC 2003) report calling for a ban on slaughter without stunning. Vigorous opposition and sensitive relations with Muslim communities forced the UK government to retract their endorsement of the recommendation, yet as the halal market has expanded rapidly over the last 15 years, there have been repeated calls for a ban on slaughter without stunning. Islam and halal in the United Kingdom During the eighteenth century the East India Company recruited young men from the Indian subcontinent to work as

in Religion, regulation, consumption
Abstract only
John Lever and Johan Fischer

manufacturing process is. The company’s HSCCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) plan and food safety programme are examined and the destination countries of the final products are explored in depth. This is particularly significant in the halal market, we are informed, not least because different regions and markets have different halal requirements and different bodies have to be consulted. As our informant states: ‘Yes, it’s one religion, but in that there are subtleties or differences in the market.’ Because HFCE doesn’t have any halal guidelines or standards

in Religion, regulation, consumption
Abstract only
John Lever and Johan Fischer

good option and acceptable. Hanan maintains that knowledge of halal is something ‘you learn along the way in Denmark’ and that it doesn’t really require particular skills except perhaps when looking for questionable or prohibited ingredients such as gelatine and also E numbers. Hanan’s knowledge of recent developments in the halal market is not only discussed with friend and relatives, but also updated using electronic resources such as www.justhalal.dk –​especially challenging are processed products such as cheese and bread that are clearly more complex than 157

in Religion, regulation, consumption