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Globalising kosher and halal markets
Authors: John Lever and Johan Fischer

Over the last two decades, global demand for kosher products has been growing steadily, and many non-religious consumers view kosher as a healthy food option: in the US over 60 per cent of kosher food consumption is linked to non-religious values associated with health and food quality. This book explores the emergence and expansion of global kosher and halal markets with a particular focus on the UK and Denmark. While Kosher is a Hebrew term meaning 'fit' or 'proper', halal is an Arabic word that literally means 'permissible' or 'lawful'. The book discusses the manufacture and production of kosher and halal meat (both red meat and poultry) with specific reference to audits/inspections, legislation, networking, product innovation and certification. It draws on contemporary empirical material to explore kosher and halal comparatively at different levels of the social scale, such as individual consumption, the marketplace, religious organisations and the state. It compares the major markets for kosher/halal in the UK with those in Denmark, where kosher/halal are important to smaller groups of religious consumers. Denmark plays an important role in biotechnology that is compatible with what we call kosher/halal transnational governmentality. The book explores how Jewish and Muslim consumers in the UK and Denmark understand and practice kosher consumption in their everyday lives. It also explores how 'compound practice' links eating with issues such as health and spirituality, for example, and with the influence of secularism and ritual.

John Lever and Johan Fischer

51 2 Manufacturing and selling meat This chapter explores the manufacture and production of kosher and halal meat (both red meat and poultry) in London and Manchester in the UK and also in Denmark, with specific reference to audits/​inspections, legislation, networking, product innovation and certification. The reason for focusing on the UK in particular is, firstly, that the UK has large Jewish and expanding Muslim communities as well as some well-​known kosher and halal certification bodies. At the same time this market is far more complex than the market in

in Religion, regulation, consumption
Abstract only
Global kosher and halal markets
John Lever and Johan Fischer

per cent in a number of European and North American countries 2 3 In t rod u ct ion and the demand for certified halal meat products is predicted to expand exponentially (Miller 2009). Over the last three decades, Muslim majority states in Southeast Asia, most notably Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei and Singapore, developed the first halal standards and certification regimes, primarily for internal and latterly for external markets (Fischer 2011, 2015a). The continuing expansion of the halal market over the last decade has created many opportunities for non

in Religion, regulation, consumption
The case of Maghrebi Muslims in France
Florence Bergeaud-Blackler

relations. For Muslims, there exists a relative exogamy2 with the ‘people of the Book’.3 Food is an area in which the principle of continuity with and tolerance towards the practices of the two older religions conflicts with specific Islamic instructions. In Europe, outside of Dar el Islam,4 imams’ opinions are divergent and can be divided roughly into two main tendencies. Some consider that halal meat is the result of a precise technical ritual described in the Islamic texts. Others, quoting a verse of the Koran, consider that meat is lawful as long as the animal has

in Qualities of food
Abstract only
John Lever and Johan Fischer

chapter is on Manchester and Copenhagen and all our latest empirical material was obtained in these locations. We again start off by discussing consumers who are very observant about halal and move towards the less observant or more relaxed consumers. However, it is not as easy to make a clear-​cut distinction between orthodox and relaxed halal consumers as it is with kosher, particularly in the UK. While some Muslims are very strict about their preference for halal meat this might be in relation to either stunned or non-​stunned halal meat and their overall practice

in Religion, regulation, consumption
John Lever and Johan Fischer

cafés in the area every day for halal lunches of samosas, curries and breads for his workforce. As the Asian restaurant and food trade in the city expanded both economically and culturally, Werbner (1999: 562) discusses how ‘hundreds of grocery stores selling halal meat became the base for the emergence of food wholesalers and manufacturers, making anything from frozen samosa and Asian savouries to chutneys’. Notably, it was during this period that some of these businesses started selling products to mainstream supermarkets for the first time. Mirroring developments

in Religion, regulation, consumption
Abstract only
Qaisra Shahraz

eat halal meat and address other Muslim men and women as brothers and sisters. I greet all Muslim people with the greeting words ‘Asalam-o-Alaikum’ meaning ‘May peace be upon you.’ Islam itself means ‘peace’. Similarly, I regard my Pakistani heritage as enriching – ­something to be celebrated. I am so glad that I can speak two languages of Pakistan. I have a wardrobe full of elegant Pakistani party garments. I love my curries and chapatis. When I see an elderly person from Pakistan, of my father’s age group, I automatically switch to either Punjabi or Urdu out of

in Manchester
Abstract only
John Lever and Johan Fischer

overly focused on the physical and material side of Islam while downplaying spirituality, morality, justice and love. Looking within rather to material signs of piety makes life easier, and instead of competing over material and shallow forms of religiosity Ahmadi avoid judging the halal/​haram consumption patterns of others, for example. Thus, even in the major UK market for halal meat Ahmadiyya is not involved in animal slaughter or halal certification. What is more, Ahmadiyya does not wish to engage in business and what it considers overly commercialised forms

in Religion, regulation, consumption
Open Access (free)
Mark Harvey, Andrew McMeekin, and Alan Warde

proper behaviour in observance are indeterminate, there being several competing interpretations; religious authorities are not involved, and there is no certification process. Indeed the religious rules governing eating are more ambivalent than are the informal regulations which have emerged regarding the cultural and commercial practices surrounding the marketing of halal meat. The procedures which result in the recognition of meat as halal are even more surprising. The slaughtering process is increasingly the same as that for meats of other provenance. It is the fact

in Qualities of food
Race and nation in twenty-first-century Britain

Nationalism has reasserted itself today as the political force of our times, remaking European politics wherever one looks. Britain is no exception, and in the midst of Brexit, it has even become a vanguard of nationalism's confident return to the mainstream. Brexit, in the course of generating a historically unique standard of sociopolitical uncertainty and constitutional intrigue, tore apart the two-party compact that had defined the parameters of political contestation for much of twentieth-century Britain. This book offers a wide-ranging picture of the different theoretical accounts relevant to addressing nationalism. It briefly repudiates the increasingly common attempts to read contemporary politics through the lens of populism. The book explores the assertion of 'muscular liberalism' and civic nationalism. It examines more traditional, conservative appeals to racialised notions of blood, territory, purity and tradition as a means of reclaiming the nation. The book also examines how neoliberalism, through its recourse to discourses of meritocracy, entrepreneurial self and individual will, alongside its exaltation of a 'points-system' approach to the ills of immigration, engineers its own unique rendition of the nationalist crisis. There are a number of important themes through which the process of liberal nationalism can be documented - what Arun Kundnani captured, simply and concisely, as the entrenchment of 'values racism'. These include the 'faux-feminist' demonisation of Muslims.