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A Military Tactic or Collateral Damage?
Abdulkarim Ekzayez and Ammar Sabouni

emergency responder and coordinated local medical and humanitarian aid in Damascus and its suburbs. As a result of these activities he was persecuted and forced to leave Syria. Since 2013, he has been active in designing and implementing Medical Education and Training of Health Professionals within Syria through tele-training and with the Syrian American Medical Society Education Committee. He is now a practising academic physician on placement at Chatham House’s Centre on Global Health Security and a Research Affiliate for The Lancet– AUB Commission on Syria and health

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Selection, containment and quarantine since 1800

The subject of this volume is situated at the point of intersection of the studies of medicalisation and border studies. The authors discuss borders as sites where human mobility has been and is being controlled by biomedical means, both historically and in the present. Three types of border control technologies for preventing the spread of disease are considered: quarantine, containment and the biomedical selection of migrants and refugees. These different types of border control technologies are not exclusive of one another, nor do they necessarily lead to total restrictions on movement. Instead of a simplifying logic of exclusion–inclusion, this volume turns the focus towards the multilayered entanglement of medical regimes in attempts at managing the porosity of the borders. State and institutional responses to the COVID-19 pandemic provide evidence for the topicality of such attempts. Using interdisciplinary approaches, the chapters scrutinise ways in which concerns and policies of disease prevention shift or multiply borders, as well as connecting or disconnecting places. The authors address several questions: to what degree has containment for medical reasons operated as a bordering process in different historical periods including the classical quarantine in the Mediterranean and south-eastern Europe, in the Nazi-era, and in postcolonial UK? Moreover, do understandings of disease and the policies for selecting migrants and refugees draw on both border regimes and humanitarianism, and what factors put limits on the technologies of selection?

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Nationalism in internationalism
Michael Holmes and Kathryn Simpson

This chapter examines the possible future relationship of Ireland and the EU. For a long time, Ireland was seen as a pro-European country, one that had benefited from many EU policies and programmes. The analyses in this volume suggest that there is now a more questioning dimension to the relationship, but at the same time the broad outlook remains pro-European. In particular, Brexit has served to underline Ireland’s commitment to, if not dependency on, the EU. However, there are several potential problems which could disrupt that commitment. Brexit has changed relations between the Republic and Northern Ireland, and between Ireland and Britain, in ways that are still far from known. The EU is also still changing, with emerging calls for deeper integration in some quarters. While Ireland is generally supportive of further integration, developments in areas such as defence cooperation and tax harmonisation would cause problems. Finally, the global situation is constantly evolving, and issues such as climate change, health security and deglobalisation could have a major impact on future Irish–EU relations.

in Ireland and the European Union
Challenges and opportunities

This book explores the evolving African security paradigm in light of the multitude of diverse threats facing the continent and the international community today and in the decades ahead. It challenges current thinking and traditional security constructs as woefully inadequate to meet the real security concerns and needs of African governments in a globalized world. The continent has becoming increasingly integrated into an international security architecture, whereby Africans are just as vulnerable to threats emanating from outside the continent as they are from home-grown ones. Thus, Africa and what happens there, matters more than ever. Through an in-depth examination and analysis of the continent’s most pressing traditional and non-traditional security challenges—from failing states and identity and resource conflict to terrorism, health, and the environment—it provides a solid intellectual foundation, as well as practical examples of the complexities of the modern African security environment. Not only does it assess current progress at the local, regional, and international level in meeting these challenges, it also explores new strategies and tools for more effectively engaging Africans and the global community through the human security approach.

Substance, symbols, and hope
Author: Andra Gillespie

The election of Barack Obama was a milestone in US history with tremendous symbolic importance for the black community. But was this symbolism backed up by substance? Did ordinary black people really benefit under the first black president?

This is the question that Andra Gillespie sets out to answer in Race and the Obama Administration. Using a variety of methodological techniques—from content analysis of executive orders to comparisons of key indicators, such as homeownership and employment rates under Clinton, Bush, and Obama— the book charts the progress of black causes and provides valuable perspective on the limitations of presidential power in addressing issues of racial inequality. Gillespie uses public opinion data to investigate the purported disconnect between Obama’s performance and his consistently high ratings among black voters, asking how far the symbolic power of the first black family in the White House was able to compensate for the compromises of political office.

Scholarly but accessible, Race and the Obama Administration will be of interest to students and lecturers in US politics and race studies, as well as to general readers who want to better understand the situation of the black community in the US today and the prospects for its improvement.

A distinctive politics?
Author: Richard Taylor

English radicalism has been a deep-rooted but minority tradition in the political culture since at least the seventeenth century. The central aim of this book is to examine, in historical and political context, a range of key events and individuals that exemplify English radicalism in the twentieth century. This analysis is preceded by defining precisely what has constituted this tradition; and by the main outline of the development of the tradition from the Civil War to the end of the nineteenth century. Three of the main currents of English radicalism in the twentieth century have been the labour movement, the women’s movement and the peace movement. These are discussed in some detail, as a framework for the detailed consideration of ten key representative figures of the tradition in the twentieth century: Bertrand Russell, Sylvia Pankhurst, Ellen Wilkinson, George Orwell, E.P. Thompson, Michael Foot, Joan Maynard, Stuart Hall, Tony Benn and Nicolas Walter. The question of ‘agency’ – of how to bring about radical change in a predominantly conservative society and culture – has been a fundamental issue for English radicals. It is argued that, in the twentieth century, many of the important achievements in progressive politics have taken place in and through extra-parliamentary movements, as well as through formal political parties and organisations – the Labour Party and other socialist organisations – and on occasion, through libertarian and anarchist politics. The final chapter considers the continuing relevance of this political tradition in the early twenty-first century, and reviews its challenges and prospects.

Meeting the challenge of internal security
Emil Kirchner and James Sperling

. Successive action plans and framework decisions identify EU-wide policy objectives. In addition to the problem of terrorism and organised crime, the EU has sought to increase its competency in allied areas of internal security: border control, money laundering, computer and information network security, and health security. Moreover, the EU has strengthened existing coordinating mechanisms at the

in EU security governance
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Stephen Emerson and Hussein Solomon

international obligation, according to proponents.3 The 2003 Commission on Human Security also provided a powerful intellectual catalyst in this shift by inextricably linking health and human security. It stated that “Good health is both essential and instrumental to achieving human security … because the very heart of security is protecting human lives” and thus “health security is at the vial core of human security— and illness, disability and avoidable death are ‘critical pervasive threats’ to human security.”4 The good news: decades of progress The second half of the

in African security in the twenty-first century
Stephen Emerson and Hussein Solomon

we saw earlier, rampant virulent disease, malnutrition, limited access to clean water, and poor sanitation pose enormous challenges to African countries given their limited health care capacity and overburdened health delivery infrastructure. In addition, the spread of highly deadly communicable diseases resulting from African pandemics pose an increasingly serious threat to global health security, as the 2014–15 Ebola outbreak in West Africa clearly highlighted. Accordingly, the public health sector is an area where the United States and many of its allies have

in African security in the twenty-first century
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Medicalising borders
Sevasti Trubeta, Christian Promitzer, and Paul Weindling

security. Indeed, a large number of studies in the last two decades have addressed the entanglement of the health–disease issue with the logic of biosecurity in international and national securitisation regimes. Especially with respect to the period from the 1990s up to today, such studies call attention to the linking of biomedical border control with global health regimes: the fusion of global health concerns with security regimes culminates in ‘global health security’. 18 As de Bengy Puyvallée and Kittelsen 19 suggest, the phrase ‘disease knows no borders

in Medicalising borders