Heresy is a topic that exerts almost universal fascination. This book an invaluable collection of primary sources in translation, aimed at students and academics alike. It provides a wide array of materials on both heresy (Cathars and Waldensians) and the persecution of heresy in medieval France. The book is divided into eight sections, each devoted to a different genre of source material. A large proportion of evidence for heresy in the eleventh and twelfth centuries comes from chronicles, but by the thirteenth century they do not loom quite so large in comparison to other genres. Historians sometimes use the label 'chronicle' as a shorthand term to cover any kind of medieval written account of past events. For those interested in seeing how 'heresy' was constructed rhetorically by orthodoxy, sermons are an invaluable source. The book presents a selection of extracts from two of the most important works of preaching in the thirteenth century, the tales collected by Stephen of Bourbon and those written by Humbert of Romans. It also offers a variety of letters, from a very public letter, widely circulated with the aim of stirring prelates into action against heresy, to administrative letters. In the wake of the Peace of Paris, a series of ecclesiastical councils provided for the prosecution of heresy in Languedoc. There is an abundance of modern scholarship on inquisition records and registers of inquisition trials.

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Gottschalk of Orbais and the predestination controversy in the archdiocese of Rheims

13 Heresy in the flesh: Gottschalk of Orbais and the predestination controversy in the archdiocese of Rheims Matthew Bryan Gillis The controversy over divine predestination hit the archdiocese of Rheims like an unforeseen storm in late 848 and troubled the region repeatedly through the 850s.1 The origin of this conflict was the missionary priest Gottschalk of Orbais, whose interpretation of Augustine’s teachings on predestination caused scandal first in Italy and then in the eastern Frankish realm. Emphasising the utter sinfulness of humanity and the need to

in Hincmar of Rheims

This book is about the rise of Christian dualism and its influence in the Byzantine world. Before the seventh century there had been dualist religions like Gnosticism and Manichaeism which contained Christian elements, but they were theosophical movements, based on myths which were not Christian, although they could be interpreted in a Christian sense. The Christian dualism preached by Constantine of Mananalis in the mid-seventh century was truly Christian because it was based on the authority of the New Testament alone. Christian dualism began with Constantine of Mananalis who lived in the reign of Constans II, and the Byzantine Empire ended with the conquest of Constantinople by the Sultan Mehmet II in 1453. The book focuses on two areas of Christian dualism. The first is the Tondrakian movement in Armenia, which appears to be cognate with, but not identical to, Paulicianism. Superficially Bogomilism seemed to have a good deal in common with Paulicianism. The second area which the authors have only dealt with in a limited way is Bosnia, which though on the frontiers of the Byzantine world was not part of it. Tefrice became a refuge for Paulicians who were persecuted in the Byzantine Empire, and Carbeas is said also to have offered attractive terms to non-Paulician Byzantines who would come and settle in this dangerous frontier zone.

John H. Arnold and Peter Biller

Part V: Letters and Papal Bulls Introduction to Part V In this part we present a variety of letters, from a very public letter, widely circulated with the aim of stirring prelates into action against heresy (Doc. 21), to administrative letters, sent in the course of dealing with the practicalities of prosecuting heresy (Docs 25, 26), to a petitionary letter sent by the townspeople of Carcassonne complaining about an inquisitor (Doc. 27B). The bulk of material here comes however from papal bulls – letters and

in Heresy and inquisition in France, 1200-1300
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John H. Arnold and Peter Biller

The editors of this book first met at the University of York, when one was a junior lecturer teaching a special subject on ‘Heresy in the Middle Ages’ and the other was a student on that course. Our first intellectual engagements were entwined with study of the textual sources for medieval heresy, at that point drawn from the just-reprinted and wonderful collection of material edited by Walter L. Wakefield and Austin P. Evans, 1 and from a large pile of photocopied transcriptions of inquisition trials produced by the

in Heresy and inquisition in France, 1200-1300
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John H. Arnold and Peter Biller

Part IV: Sermons Introduction to Part IV For those interested in seeing how ‘heresy’ was constructed rhetorically by orthodoxy, sermons are an invaluable source. They were always very consciously directed towards an audience (even if the specific nature of that audience is often now impossible to recapture) 1 and some sermon collections were copied and circulated very widely (and particular stories extracted and circulated even more widely), making them the closest thing the medieval period had to ‘mass media’. 2 One

in Heresy and inquisition in France, 1200-1300
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John H. Arnold and Peter Biller

Part II: Chronicles Introduction to Part II A large proportion of evidence for heresy in the eleventh and twelfth centuries comes from chronicles, 1 but by the thirteenth century they do not loom quite so large in comparison to other genres (most obviously inquisitorial evidence). Nonetheless, and particularly for the earlier part of the thirteenth century, they provide evidence of events which are otherwise not visible to us. This is particularly the case with the prosecution of heresy in northern France, which has

in Heresy and inquisition in France, 1200-1300
John H. Arnold and Peter Biller

Part VI: Councils and Statutes Introduction to Part VI The wars of the Albigensian crusade (1208–29) were brought to an end by the Peace of Paris 1 in 1229, by which Raymond VII, Count of Toulouse (d. 1249), capitulated and swore to persecute heresy. He was allowed to keep for his lifetime a third of the lands his father had held. His daughter Jeanne was to marry one of the French king’s brothers – she married Alphonse of Poitiers in 1236 or 1237. They were to inherit on Raymond’s death, and if they died

in Heresy and inquisition in France, 1200-1300
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John H. Arnold and Peter Biller

Part III: Treatises Introduction to Part III The materials we translate here do not fit neatly into one genre, but they are all, in different ways, discursive texts in which an author holds forth on a topic, for the benefit of others. We include some brief extracts on the topic of heresy that appear within works which take a much wider overall remit – the edification of the clergy, for example (Doc. 10A), or general theological treatises (Docs 12 and 13). Our choice here is guided by an interest both in orthodox thought

in Heresy and inquisition in France, 1200-1300
John H. Arnold and Peter Biller

Part VII: Legal Consultations and Inquisitors’ Manuals Introduction to Part VII As mendicant inquisitors got under way in the 1230s, they rapidly developed their procedures. This process was helped along by consultations with legal experts and ecclesiastical councils on many technical questions about definitions of different sorts of support for heresy, how to set up an inquisition, and the work of interrogation and sentencing. We provide here two consultations of lawyers (Docs 33 and 35) and sets of responses and

in Heresy and inquisition in France, 1200-1300