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This book deals with the institutional framework in post-socialist, after-empire spaces. It consists of nine case studies and two contributions of a more theoretical nature. Each of these analytical narratives sheds some light on the micro-politics of organised violence. After 1990, Serbs and Croats were competing over access to the resources needed for institution building and state building. Fear in turn triggered ethnic mobilisation. An 'unprofessional' riot of Serbs in the Krajina region developed into a professional war between Serbs and Croats in Croatia, in which several thousand died and several hundred thousand people were forcefully expelled from their homes. The Herceg-Bosnian style of resistance can be surprisingly effective. It is known that most of the heroin transported along the Balkans route passes through the hands of Albanian mafia groups; that this traffic has taken off since summer 1999. The concept of Staatnation is based on the doctrine according to which each 'nation' must have its own territorial State and each State must consist of one 'nation' only. The slow decline and eventual collapse of the Soviet and the Yugoslav empires was partly triggered, partly accompanied by the quest for national sovereignty. Dagestan is notable for its ethnic diversity and, even by post-Soviet standards, its dramatic economic deprivation. The integrative potential of cooperative movements at the republican, the regional and the inter-state level for the Caucasus is analyzed. The book also offers insights into the economics of ending violence. Finally, it addresses the question of reconciliation after ethnic cleansing.

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Colombian syndicates and cocaine
Stephen Snelders

to the extent Chinese or Turkish and Kurdish heroin smuggling was. Nevertheless it proved as successful. A number of factors explain these successes. To start with, the geographical location of the Netherlands, its logistical infrastructure connecting transport arriving from overseas expediently with Britain and the rest of Europe, and the congenial business climate for international trade, were excellently suited for smuggling. The logistical infrastructure and the transport routes by sea and air were impossible for Dutch law enforcement agencies to close off. A

in Drug smuggler nation
Abstract only
Colin Gardner

) and merchant seaman Ray Hicks (Nick Nolte), hatch a heroin smuggling plot in Dog Soldiers . 16 Row your boat: Sarah (Meryl Streep) and Charles (Jeremy Irons) cement their blissful reunion on Lake Windermere at the conclusion of The French Lieutenant’s Woman

in Karel Reisz
Abstract only
Stephen Snelders

the smuggling cultures of the south of the country, while Turkish and Kurdish heroin smugglers were integrated in the migrant communities of the Netherlands. For foreign smugglers who failed to have this kind of embeddedness a successful alternative was making alliances based on personal relationships with those who had. This was the path taken by the Greeks and the Colombians. Altogether this created by the end of the century networks of literally hundreds of smuggling groups of various ethnic, social, and cultural compositions. Some of them

in Drug smuggler nation
Abstract only
Chinese triads, Turkish families, and heroin
Stephen Snelders

In the interwar period the introduction and implementation of the drug regulatory regime had led to opium smuggling becoming embedded in Chinese communities in the Netherlands. Suppression of smuggling proved impossible. However, a certain degree of tolerance of the Chinese opium markets by Dutch law enforcement in a kind of co-management with Chinese mutual aid societies did assist in containing the problem. This chapter investigates how after 1970 heroin smuggling to and through the Netherlands successfully evolved and

in Drug smuggler nation
Tom Whittaker

interest in Paco on discovering that he is the son of Torrecuadrada, and invites him to his cell and offers him heroin. As Paco carefully prepares the needle and locates a vein for the injection, Lendakari reveals that el Cojo had been associated with a heroin-smuggling ring, but that he had also grassed on him to the Civil Guards. As he injects himself, we are presented once again with the haptic aesthetic of pierced skin and embodied sound of the sudden intake of breath, sharp and shallow, as the opioids fizz and flood through his body. As the dialogue subsides for a

in The Spanish quinqui film
Stephen Snelders

cannabis trader in the world. He had connections with the main suppliers of cannabis in Morocco, Lebanon, and Pakistan. He had links with ships and sailors who transported cargoes of drugs from these suppliers and brought them to the Netherlands (sometimes via Spain and Portugal), where they were offloaded in one of the harbours or transported via speedboats to the coastal beaches. Bruinsma's operations were not limited to cannabis: he sidelined in heroin (smuggled in from Afghanistan through the Soviet Union, Pakistan, or Thailand) and cocaine (from Colombia). He

in Drug smuggler nation
Imogen Richards

sale of drugs, the proceeds of which were laundered and processed in recognised banking systems. It has also been widely noted that AQ historically maintained strong financial ties with the Taliban and that the two have jointly been involved in weapons-and heroin-smuggling. The United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime (UNODC) estimated in 2011 that 83 per cent of the international opiate share derived from the AQ, Taliban, and allied drug trafficking in Afghanistan, constituting a US$61 billion market ( FATF 2014 ). Bearing in mind AQ’s political ties in the region

in Neoliberalism and neo-jihadism