Spenser and Shakespeare

Thirteen writers have comprehensively explained the Renaissance scheme of physiology-psychology used for nosce teipsum, to ‘know oneself’, and other scholars have analysed key features like humours, bodily spirits, passions, reason, inner wits, soul and spirit, mystic apprehension. Only poets with epic scope, like Spenser and Shakespeare, depict human nature holistically, yet these finest poets have radically distinct psychologies. Spenser’s Christianised Platonism prioritises the soul, his art mirroring divine Creation as dogmatically and encyclopedically conceived. He looks to the past, collating classical and medieval authorities in memory-devices like the figurative house, nobly ordered in triadic mystic numerical hierarchy to reform the ruins of time. Shakespeare’s sophisticated Aristoteleanism prioritises the body, highlighting physical processes and dynamic feelings of immediate experience, and subjecting them to intense, skeptical consciousness. He points to the future, using the witty ironies of popular stage productions to test and deconstruct prior authority, opening the unconscious to psychoanalysis. This polarity of psychologies is radical and profound, resembling the complementary theories of physics, structuring reality either (like Spenser) in the neatly-contained form of particle theory, or (like Shakespeare) in the rhythmic cycles of wave theory. How do we explain these distinct concepts, and how are they related? These poets’ contrary artistry appears in strikingly different versions of a ‘fairy queen’, of humour-based passions (notably the primal passion of self-love), of intellection (divergent modes of temptation and of moral resolution), of immortal soul and spirit, of holistic plot design, and of readiness for final judgment.

Elaine A. Byrne

the Irish version of Catholicism on Irish political culture, researchers have pointed to a positive correlation between hierarchical forms of religion, such as Catholicism and Eastern Orthodox and corruption.75 Catholicism, organised as a ruling body of clergy structured into orders or ranks where each is strictly subordinated to the one above it, places emphasis on the inability of man to escape sin and the consequent need for the church to be forgiving and protecting. The clergy, as mediators between mankind and God, facilitate confession and therefore the

in Political corruption in Ireland, 1922–2010
Abstract only
A new politics of protest?
Jenny Pickerill

attempted to employ CMC to strengthen their non-hierarchical forms of organisation and to resist the pressure to formalise. Environmentalists have also grasped the opportunities afforded by the technology in aiding participant mobilisation and co-ordination, distributing their alternative media, developing new online tactics of protest and effectively subverting (or mutating) the technology from within. The ways in which environmental activists overcame the barriers and utilised these opportunities (in different ways by distinct groups) illustrate the complex use of

in Cyberprotest
Examples from late Ottoman-era Palestine and the late British Mandate
Yossi Katz and Liora Bigon

diffusing a hierarchical form. The focal point was Tel Aviv, where information was received from abroad, and the agents who propagated the ideas were private entrepreneurs and, more particularly, companies created by the Zionist establishment for this purpose. 29 This process was commented on in the newspaper HaOlam (The World) in its 26 January 1911 edition: ‘The aspiration to

in Garden cities and colonial planning
Spenser and Shakespeare
Robert Lanier Reid

moment of present passion. Rival views of soul: Christianized Platonism versus sceptical Aristotelianism Privileging transcendent Reality, Augustine desired ‘to know God and my soul…. Nothing else.’ 3 He saw the body as a mere context for psyche’s functioning, a housing that drew its idealized hierarchic form from the soul. Like

in Renaissance psychologies
Abstract only
Robert Lanier Reid

made in God’s image. Spenser’s initial soul-maidens (Caelia and Alma) inhabit a house made with Christianity’s and then Plato’s ideal hierarchic forms. No such structure assists Shakespeare’s protagonists (Hamlet, Timon, Antony, Prospero) as they view their identity amid changeable clouds or (Juliet and Cleopatra) amid fancies of a noble but discredited beloved. In Shakespeare’s darkest play ‘soul

in Renaissance psychologies
Christoph Knill and Duncan Liefferink

explicitly called for; the UK established structures for the active provision of environmental information and departed from its formerly rather secretive administrative procedures (see Chapter 6). Only in the case of the EIA Directive does the UK continue to resist adaptation towards a more formal regulatory framework as well as increases in hierarchical forms of coordination (Knill 2003, 200). The implementation record of France reveals two cases of ineffective implementation. Although the Drinking Water Directive was basically in line with the existing approach of

in Environmental politics in the European Union
Open Access (free)
Kinneret Lahad

possibilities are evidently gendered and heteronormative, depicting a blocked future presently characterized by numbness. Their experiences of immobility become more perceptible when it seems that others are moving ahead in a linear progressive fashion. The view of single women as immobile subjects also alludes to the hierarchy formed between what can be seen as two temporal discernible positions. If we draw from Bauman’s rich formulation, when one is coupled, one can control and transgress time by having the ability to move forward. When one occupies this position, time can

in A table for one
Hallucinating conflict in the political and personal frontiers of Ulster during the IRA border campaign of 1920–22
Fiachra Byrne

narrative’, 18 the movement of the text between qualitatively different medical and patient perspectives, was necessarily a hierarchical form of narrative hybridisation. It entailed the framing and contextualisation by Nolan, the medical authority and specialist, of a patient-authored account. The patient's ability to negotiate this appears to have been limited to his authorship of

in Medicine, health and Irish experiences of conflict 1914–45
Abstract only
Systemic crisis and democratic public ownership
Thomas M. Hanna

competing and unrealizable dogmas of the twentieth century – ‘a centralized and planned version of socialism and a free market unregulated capitalism.’60 On the one hand, it can be now be convincingly argued that traditional bureaucratized, centralized, and hierarchical forms of public ownership are not the only (or desired) alternative to private 148  Our common wealth ownership, and that democratized and decentralized forms of public ownership can and should be a component of any alternative to corporate capitalism. On the other hand, it is also increasingly possible

in Our common wealth