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Author: Moira Maguire

This study reveals the desperate plight of the poor, neglected, illegitimate and abused children in an Irish society that claimed to ‘cherish’ and hold them sacred, but in fact marginalized and ignored them. It examines the history of childhood in post-independence Ireland, breaking new ground in examining the role of the state in caring for its most vulnerable citizens. In foregrounding policy and practice as it related to poor, illegitimate and abused children, the book gives voice to historical actors who formed a significant proportion of the Irish population but who have been ignored and marginalized in the historical record. Moreover, it uses the experiences of those children as lenses through which to re-evaluate the Catholic influence in post-independence Irish society. The historiography on church and state in modern Ireland tends to emphasise the formal means through which the church sought to ensure that Irish social policy was infused with Catholic principles. While it is almost cliché to suggest that the Catholic Church exerted influence over many aspects of Irish life, there have been few attempts to examine what this meant in practical terms. The book offers a different interpretation of the relationship between and among the Catholic Church, the political establishment and Irish people.

1980–2000
Dominique Marshall

University . Glassford , S. ( 2014 ), ‘ Practical Patriotism: How the Canadian Junior Red Cross and Its Child Members Met the Challenge of the Second World War ’, Journal of the History of Childhood and Youth , 7 : 2 , 219 – 42 , doi: 10.1353/hcy.2014.0024 . Global Affairs Canada, Public Affairs Branch, Digital Innovation and Engagement, CIDA Photography Collections, and CIDA Corporate Collection . Hutchinson , J. ( 1997 ), ‘ The Junior Red Cross Goes to Healthland ’, American Journal of Public Health (1971) , 87 : 11

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
A history of child development in Britain
Author: Bonnie Evans

This book explains the current fascination with autism by linking it to a longer history of childhood development. Drawing from a staggering array of primary sources, it traces autism back to its origins in the early twentieth century and explains why the idea of autism has always been controversial and why it experienced a 'metamorphosis' in the 1960s and 1970s. The book locates changes in psychological theory in Britain in relation to larger shifts in the political and social organisation of schools, hospitals, families and childcare. It explores how government entities have dealt with the psychological category of autism. The book looks in detail at a unique children's 'psychotic clinic' set up in London at the Maudsley Hospital in the 1950s. It investigates the crisis of government that developed regarding the number of 'psychotic' children who were entering the public domain when large long-stay institutions closed. The book focuses on how changes in the organisation of education and social services for all children in 1970 gave further support to the concept of autism that was being developed in London's Social Psychiatry Research Unit. It also explores how new techniques were developed to measure 'social impairment' in children in light of the Seebohm reforms of 1968 and other legal changes of the early 1970s. Finally, the book argues that epidemiological research on autism in the 1960s and 1970s pioneered at London's Institute of Psychiatry has come to define global attempts to analyse and understand what, exactly, autism is.

Tom Woodin

The number of young people writing in London grew significantly in the 1970s and 1980s. Several key strands can be identified: the work produced around Stepney Words and the school strike leading to work on youth culture; the writing of migrants who reflected on past and present; and three longer pieces of autobiography and novels. The ways in which these young people engaged with writing revealed links to wider literary models as well as an ambiguous sense of self. Overall, they pose challenges for our understanding of the history of childhood and assumptions about maturity. Distinctions between the learning of young people and adult education reveal considerable overlap rather than a sharp distinction between the two.

in Working-class writing and publishing in the late twentieth century
Paul Sargent

Chapter 6 examines the specific forms of childhood identity that are employed to govern young people within the Irish juvenile justice system. This chapter does not attempt a narrative history of ‘childhood identity’ but rather seeks to unsettle the various regimes of subjectification to which the concept of identity is linked. With this in mind, ‘identity’ is examined in terms of its function as a regulatory ideal rather than trying to construct a historical narrative of the subject. It is within this context that the chapter looks at the most prominent forms of identity that are employed to govern within the ‘youth justice’ space. Various forms of identity, such as the ‘delinquent’, the ‘reformable child’, the ‘psychological child’, the ‘at risk child’ and the ‘child as a bearer of rights’, are examined. These forms of identity are not employed in isolation but often complement each other in the process of governing the offender and potential offender.

in Wild Arabs and savages
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Miles Leeson and Emma V. Miller

1861’, ‘then again to thirteen in 1875’. 10 However, parliament resisted raising it to sixteen until a journalist named W.T. Stead brought the plight of child sex workers such as Elizabeth Armstrong to public attention in the 1880s. Armstrong was just thirteen when she was bought with the intention of using her as a sex worker and then subdued using chloroform. 11 As historian, Lloyd deMause, observed in 1976, ‘[t]‌he history of childhood is a

in Incest in contemporary literature
Encounters with biosocial power
Author: Kevin Ryan

Refiguring childhood stages a series of encounters with biosocial power, which is a specific zone of intensity within the more encompassing arena of biopower and biopolitics. Assembled at the intersection of thought and practice, biosocial power attempts to bring envisioned futures into the present, taking hold of life in the form of childhood, thereby bridging being and becoming while also shaping the power relations that encapsulate the social and cultural world(s) of adults and children. Taking up a critical perspective which is attentive to the contingency of childhoods – the ways in which particular childhoods are constituted and configured – the method used in the book is a transversal genealogy that moves between past and present while also crossing a series of discourses and practices framed by children’s rights (the right to play), citizenship, health, disadvantage and entrepreneurship education. The overarching analysis converges on contemporary neoliberal enterprise culture, which is approached as a conjuncture that helps to explain, and also to trouble, the growing emphasis on the agency and rights of children. It is against the backdrop of this problematic that the book makes its case for refiguring childhood. Focusing on the how, where and when of biosocial power, Refiguring childhood will appeal to researchers and students interested in examining the relationship between power and childhood through the lens of social and political theory, sociology, cultural studies, history and geography.

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The reinvention of childhood
Laura Tisdall

Society , pp. 18, 177, 190; Heywood, The History of Childhood , pp. 27–30. 7 Steedman, ‘ Landscape for a good woman ’, p. 119. Cited, for example, in Robinson et al ., ‘ Telling stories about post-war Britain ’, pp. 277–8; in Waters, ‘ Autobiography, nostalgia and the changing practices of working-class selfhood ’, p

in A progressive education?
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Alysa Levene

of infant abandonment has been used both to shed light on a neglected aspect of eighteenth-century history, and to reflect on wider topics. Infant abandonment in England took quite a different form than that in the rest of Europe, and played a different part in the mixed economy of welfare. The Foundling Hospital was a product of specifically mid-century concerns, and was reliant on the vagaries of charity and attitudes to manpower and the poor for continued support. It plays an important part in the history of childhood, by highlighting attitudes towards children

in Childcare, health and mortality at the London Foundling Hospital 1741–1800
Nancy Jiwon Cho

where there is no more separation from best friends; and thirdly, they appeal to the child by replicating their language: ‘there we hope to meet them all, / And never, never part’ (my emphasis). Conclusion In her pioneering British Hymn Books for Children, 1800–1900: Re-tuning the History of Childhood (2016), Alisa Clapp-Itnyre confronted the inadequacy of the preconception that children’s hymnody is comprised of ‘morbid death hymns, “where death is described vividly and

in Religion and life cycles in early modern England