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Second edition
Author: A. J. Coates

Though the just war tradition has an ancient pedigree, like any tradition of thought, it is subject to historical highs and lows. Drawing on examples from the history of warfare from the Crusades to the present day, this book explores the limits and possibilities of the moral regulation of war. It focuses on the tensions which exist between war and morality. The moral ambiguity and mixed record of that tradition is acknowledged and the dangers which an exaggerated view of the justice or moral worth of war poses are underlined. The adoption of a 'dispositional' view of ethical life, in which moral character and moral culture play a decisive part, widens and transforms the ethics of war. Realism resists the application of morality to war. Pacifism harms and benefits the just war tradition in about equal measure. In opposition to the amoral and wholly pragmatic approach of the 'pure' realist, the just war theorist insists on the moral determination of war where that is possible, and on the moral renunciation of war where it is not. Moral realism is what the just war tradition purports to be about. Legitimate authority has become entirely subordinated to the concept of state sovereignty. If moderate forms of consequentialism threaten the principle of noncombatant immunity, more extreme or purer forms clearly undermine it. The strategic and the ethical problems of counterterrorism are compounded by the emergence of a new and more extreme form of terrorism.

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The Korean War in Britain
Grace Huxford

exploring the position of the Korean War and the Cold War in British history-​writing in further detail. It highlights how selfhood and citizenship have emerged as growing categories of analysis in Cold War studies and argues why it is important to consider them in the context of post-​1945 Britain. It closes by exploring the challenges and possibilities of writing the social history of warfare and bringing domestic and military ‘spheres’ together in a meaningful way. The Korean War in history Despite its ‘forgotten’ place in British popular culture, a sizeable

in The Korean War in Britain
Philip M. Taylor

Chapter 23 The Second World War The Second World War witnessed the greatest propaganda battle in the history of warfare. For six years, all the participants employed propaganda on a scale that dwarfed all other conflicts, including even the First World War. There were several reasons why this was so. In the first place, this was a war between entire nations, even more so than in 1914-18. In the totalitarian nations, coercion had replaced consultation in the political process, democracy had been dismantled and the masses subjugated to the will of one party

in Munitions of the Mind
Arabs, Israelis, and the limits of military force
Author: Jeremy Pressman

The Arab–Israeli conflict has been at the centre of international affairs for decades. Despite repeated political efforts, the confrontation and casualties continue, especially in fighting between Israelis and Palestinians. This new assessment emphasizes the role that military force plays in blocking a diplomatic resolution. Many Arabs and Israelis believe that the only way to survive or to be secure is through the development, threat, and use of military force and violence. This idea is deeply flawed and results in missed diplomatic opportunities and growing insecurity. Coercion cannot force rivals to sign a peace agreement to end a long-running conflict. Sometimes negotiations and mutual concessions are the key to improving the fate of a country or national movement. Using short historical case studies from the 1950s through to today, the book explores and pushes back against the dominant belief that military force leads to triumph while negotiations and concessions lead to defeat and further unwelcome challenges. In The sword is not enough, we learn both what makes this idea so compelling to Arab and Israeli leaders and how it eventually may get dislodged.

European military history and human universals
Gregory Hanlon

to face. Marshall claims to have ‘discovered’ that fewer than 25 per cent of the men he studied used their weapons. This major problem lurked unexplored throughout the history of warfare, although commanders have noted the surprisingly low level of casualties in firearms exchanges, almost from the origin of such weapons. Some researchers suspect that Marshall simply made up the numbers, which never seem to have been published, or the study properly replicated. Dave Grossman has explored these phenomena of fear and fury in much more depth. With the proper

in Early modern war narratives and the Revolt in the Low Countries
Open Access (free)
Anthony Coates

him with the respect that just conduct demands. The debilitating impact on the moral conduct of war of a sense of fundamental difference and superiority and, conversely, the moderating effect of a vestigial sense of community, have been frequently observed in the history of warfare. The contrast between the conduct of war on the Eastern and Western Fronts in the Second World War is instructive in this regard. While the

in Political concepts
Guido M. Berndt

attack another. He also chased the Franks to attack the Lombards and drive them out of Italy. 45 L. I. R. Petersen , Siege warfare and military organization in the Successor States, 400–800 AD. Byzantium, the West and Islam , History of Warfare, 91 (Leiden: Brill, 2013), pp. 188–90. 46 For the debate

in Early medieval militarisation
Jeremy Pressman

noted, tight geographical space and a history of warfare tend to increase the perception of a threatening environment.28 A dynamic view: how come breakthroughs happen? Despite all the factors mentioned above, how might actors move from reliance on military force to the idea that negotiations and concessions will help advance their goals? What could open the door to alternative pathways? I suggest five elements that might lead to a change in course: 181 Sword.indb 181 25/03/2020 15:11:03 The sword is not enough (1) leadership from within the warring parties (2

in The sword is not enough
Propaganda, Psychological Warfare and Persuasion
Philip M. Taylor

aspect of society. At the end of the eighteenth century, Thomas Malthus wrote that ‘a recruiting serjeant always prays for a bad harvest, and a want or unemployment, or, in other words a redundant population’. Motivating men to fight – for the history of warfare is largely the history of male aggression – has always been a major problem for history’s recruiting serjeants. Hence the need to glorify and publicize military achievements to a wider public in order to increase the sense of mutual identification. Soldiers fight better if they know that their Munitions_01

in Munitions of the Mind
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‘This grave day’
Trudi Tate and Kate Kennedy

), Bliss draws upon an eclectic range of war writings from different places and historical periods. He seems to make a point of not being narrowly focused upon British experience, but rather uses the experience of 1914–18 to reflect upon the whole history of warfare since ancient times. Kennedy reminds us that ceremonies of remembrance usually included music. Alongside the silence, the sound of voices and instruments brings a further complex of meanings into the communal act of mourning and remembering. Turning from music to literary responses to the Armistice, Andrew

in The silent morning