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Religious culture and civic life in medieval northern Italy

Most people would agree that the hospital functions as one of the 'first duties of an organized society' as a public service for those members of the community who are in need. In the thirteenth century, hospitals represented a nexus of exchange between church officials, the community, the needy, and the pious or ambitious individual. This book presents a survey that offers an overview of the role of the hospital in affairs of the urban community, suggesting how changes within that community were reflected in the activities of the hospital. It locates the rise of the hospital movement in northern Italy within the context of the changing religious, social, and political environment of the city-states. The book introduces the hospital's central function in the distribution and administration of charity. It illustrates how the hospital and other charitable organizations played a role in the appropriation of power and influence by urban citizens. A comprehensive investigation of twelfth and thirteenth century hospitals' foundational charters follows. The book then delves into a detailed description of the physical plant of the hospital, the daily life of individuals, and rules and statutes followed by its members. It considers the social composition of donors, workers, and recipients of hospital services. Jurisdictional disputes among the city leaders, the community, individual religious orders, ecclesiastical authorities, and larger political forces. Finally, the book explores the process of consolidation and bureaucratization of hospitals in the fifteenth century and the emergence of state control over social services.

Geographical networks of auxiliary medical care in the First World War
Ronan Foley

auxiliary hospitals as temporary treatment spaces Auxiliary hospitals functioned both as ephemeral spaces of care and as components of the wider therapeutic network. In describing the specific Irish locations as partial endpoints within the network, this reflected their contingent production as temporary medical spaces. From a fuller list of 101 Irish hospitals those of a purely

in Medicine, health and Irish experiences of conflict 1914–45
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Sally Mayall Brasher

The current political maelstrom that revolves around social welfare, health care coverage, and emerging pandemic scares may seem to be a specifically modern concern. However, these issues also loomed large in earlier historical eras. Today, while perhaps debating the politics of health care economics, most people would agree that the hospital functions as one of the ‘first duties of an organized society’ 1 as a public service for those members of the community who are in need. This ideal is not a recent conception. It emerged as early

in Hospitals and charity
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The practice of nursing and the exigencies of war
Jane Brooks
Christine E. Hallett

particularly remarkable, and it is clear from this chapter that little clinical nursing was performed during the latter stages of the hospital’s existence, once the Bolsheviks were in power. However, Toman suggests that the hospital functioned as a ‘realm of diplomacy’, especially during the early months of the war when the Allies were keen to offer Russia all the support they could. Nurses serving overseas could be used as instruments of the state. Debbie Palmer’s work focuses on the nurses left behind during this conflict and examines their health and work in a wide

in One hundred years of wartime nursing practices, 1854–1953
Valérie Leclercq
Veronique Deblon

. As such, the hospital functioned as more than just a place of cure. Hospital work was part of the charitable and spiritual mission of religious congregations (see Chapter 2 , pp. 68–75), while the interest of the state in taking over healthcare lay partly in the safeguard of public health and social order. 13 In the early nineteenth century, old hospitals proved

in Medical histories of Belgium
Canadian military nurses at Petrograd, 1915–17
Cynthia Toman

-military, Cotton was very pleased with the decision and wrote: ‘My uniform is certainly very taking(!) and all the sisters here are terribly interested in it, and call me the “Officer Prince”.’46 Cotton was aware of the shifting political milieu and referred to the hospital in her writings as having “three distinct phases” characterised by changes in status, patronage and types of patients treated as the 1917 revolutions reached into hospital wards. Clearly 130 Eyewitnesses to revolution patronage and ‘prestige’ determined when and how the hospital functioned: [T]he first

in One hundred years of wartime nursing practices, 1854–1953
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Sally Mayall Brasher

. They were allowed control of their property and assets while alive, but were required to make an accounting of all their assets upon entrance and denounce the acquisition of further material gains. The agreement promised the couple continued maintenance and protection of the pledged legacy by the community. 84 Such commitment, particularly by families and women, reflects the insecurity of the urban society in which the hospital functioned. The institution offered protection during unstable times for both the individual's soul and material

in Hospitals and charity
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Clement Masakure

their expertise and transformed the hospital spaces into their own. In addition, by drawing from African cultural healing repertoires, African nurses came to terms with colonial medicine and reformulated local ideas of healing and nursing. The manner in which the hospital functioned changed Africans’ understanding of health and healing just as young women nursing older, male patients did. Many came to terms with the idea of having access to strangers’ bodies. Tsitsi Chinamasa recollected that during her years as a student nurse, she felt uncomfortable requesting

in African nurses and everyday work in twentieth-century Zimbabwe
The social identities of lepers in the late medieval Rhineland
Lucy Barnhouse

hospital itself: ‘Das dritte deile zu Spisunge der Armen siechen zu den guden luden by Oppenheim’. Karl Heinz Henn, ‘Mittelalterliche Spitäler in Ingelheim: Krankheiten und Nöte lassen Standesschranken fallen’, Heimat am Mittelrhein , 47 (2002), 2–3, records a use of the term in Ingelheim, where the hospital functioned as a point of orientation, as in larger cities along the Rhine. 49 See Peterson, Chapter 11 in this volume. 50 StAM, 13/287, fo. 32r. Property supporting the altar of Saint Vincent, at Mainz’s prosperous Liebfrauen foundation, is described as

in Leprosy and identity in the Middle Ages
Christopher Tyerman

excluded? What of unauthorised expressions of popular enthusiasm for the recovery of the Holy Land, such as the Children’s Crusade (1212) or the Shepherds’ Crusades (1251 and 1320)? Where, in a strict view of crusading as an institution, do the military orders fit, especially where their activities strayed far from the Holy Land or even holy war; the order-states of Prussia, Livonia and Rhodes or the hospitaller function of the Knights of St John? Should definition be dependent on papal decree, medieval academic opinion or popular response? Merely by stating this far

in The Debate on the Crusades