Open Access (free)
Victim, witness and evidence of mass violence
Caroline Fournet

3 The human body: victim, witness and evidence of mass violence1 Caroline Fournet Introduction In the context of international criminal law and case law, the fact that the individual, as a human being, is the target of criminals against humanity and génocidaires alike is a legal reality that raises no doubt or controversy.2 The definition of a crime against humanity protects ‘any civilian population’,3 while that of genocide refers to the victim ‘group’.4 Further, both definitions protect the physical and moral integrity of the individual – although the text of

in Human remains and mass violence
Margaret Brazier and Emma Cave

18.1 We take our bodies for granted most of the time. The purpose of our organs and tissue is to sustain us, the people who live in those bodies. We refer without reflection to ‘our’ hands, ‘our’ hearts. Whether that language of ownership is reflected in the law may be doubted, although the decision of the Court of Appeal in Yearworth v North Bristol NHS Trust 2 issued in a new era in debates about owning at least some parts of ‘ourselves’. What is beyond doubt is that our human body parts have value to others. 3 ‘My’ kidney may save ‘your’ life. That

in Medicine, patients and the law (sixth edition)
Ian Campbell

6 Irish Enlightenment, human societies, and human bodies ሉሊ June 1641 saw the printing in Dublin of surely the strangest book ever dedicated to James Ussher, archbishop of Armagh. Written by two Dutch physicians, Arnold and Gerard Boate, the Philosophia Naturalis Reformata (Reformed Philosophy of Nature) claimed to be a complete refutation of Aristotelian philosophy.1 Certainly, the book’s main subject was a vigorous and lengthy attack on Aristotle’s hylomorphism: the doctrine that all physical objects are composed of matter and form. It was normal for orthodox

in Renaissance humanism and ethnicity before race
Stefania Forlini

This paper examines how the reconfiguration of embodiment at the end of the nineteenth century provides Charlotte Mew with a powerful trope of disembodiment which she employs to inscribe a new kind of body in her short story, ‘Passed’- a body which allows the expression of lesbian desire. The ‘reconfiguration of embodiment’ discussed in this essay is, more specifically, the result of the emergence of the ‘machinic-human body’ (a precursor to the post-human at this time). This paper discusses how this machinic-human body ‘which is Gothic or ‘abhuman’ as the term is employed by Kelly Hurley in her book, The Gothic Body is linked to Mew‘s use of erasure, silence, death, and out-of-body-experience, and how Mew employs erasure of the printed word, and death of the heterosexual body to encode a new body, with ‘new’ desires. In ‘Passed’, text and body are intimately linked such that within the world of the story erasure of the written word is associated with the erasure of the heterosexual body, and this very erasure enacts an encoding of a homosexual one. At the same time, of course, it is Mew‘s use of print that allows the erasure and encoding that is the work of the story.

Gothic Studies
Ian Campbell

4 Humanists and genealogists on nobility and the human body ሉሊ How did the Renaissance humanists who debated true nobility, and the genealogists who served the elite, explain human heredity? This chapter will focus on two instances of Irish intellectual engagement with this problem: the dispute between John Lynch and Richard O’Ferrall in the 1660s over the nobility of Irishmen of English descent; and Dubhaltach Mac Fhirbhisigh’s physiognomical analysis of the peoples of Ireland, an analysis undertaken also in the household of Gianbattista Rinuccini. The

in Renaissance humanism and ethnicity before race
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Gothic Fears, Cultural Anxieties and the Discovery of X-rays in the 1890s
Simon Avery

In 1895, the world of modern physics was effectively ushered in with the discovery of X-rays by the German physicist, Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen. X-rays rapidly changed the ways in which the human body was perceived, and their discovery was documented and fiercely debated in scientific articles, newspaper reports, literary writings, cartoons and films. This article examines a range of these responses, both scientific and popular, and considers the particular significance of their repeated recourse to the Gothic and the uncanny as a means of expressing both excitement and disquiet at what the new X-ray phenomenon might mean.

Gothic Studies
Angela Carter‘s Exposure of Flesh-Inscribed Stereotypes
Mariaconcetta Costantini

The human body is a crucial site for the inscription of cultural paradigms: how people are perceived controls the way they are treated. Postmodernist writers have shown sexual roles, racial inequalities and other forms of discrimination to be parts of a process of reductio ad absurdum, consisting of the identification of the individual‘s social functions with their anatomical features as well as with the habitual marking of their bodies. This article examines Angela Carter‘s The Infernal Desire Machines of Doctor Hoffman where Carter‘s refusal of established body politics is most clearly dramatised. This novel exposes the dreary consequences of power/weakness relations, together with its contradictory exploitation of Gothic devices, making it an esssential testimony to Carter‘s postmodernist reconfiguration of worldviews and narrative modes.

Gothic Studies
Open Access (free)
Digital Bodies, Data and Gifts
Kristin Bergtora Sandvik

recognise the structural differences in context, I suggest these insights are crucial for understanding the making of humanitarian wearables. Carving Out the Digital Body In the wearable-technology literature, key critical questions include how such technology can augment the human body, how it affects the relationship to oneself and others, and whether wearable technology can promote human autonomy when it is locked into commercial and power relationships in which the users’ best

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Governing Precarity through Adaptive Design
Mark Duffield

constant tailoring and readjustment of information ‘to fit the human body and its cognitive abilities’ ( World Bank, 2015 : 2). The feedback process of adaptive design has four distinct stages: first, behaviour must be captured, stored and algorithmically analysed; second, the returned information must be personalised to the individual or group in a way that resonates emotionally; third, this value-added information should illuminate a way forward; and, finally, there must be a clear moment when the individual can, through actions or choices

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
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The unattractive body in early modern culture
Author: Naomi Baker

This book investigates representations of the unattractive human body in early modern English culture, examining in particular the role played by depictions of the unsightly body in the construction of specific models of identity. It provides a set of texts that can deepen their understanding of the culture and society of the twelfth-century German kingdom. The sources translated bring to life the activities of five noblemen and noblewomen. The book focuses on the ugly characters found in English literature and drama, and also refers to wider European texts and discourses, including Italian and other European visual art. It explores whether ugliness is an objective property or a subjective perception. Ugly men are often represented as Silenus figures, their unappealing exteriors belying their inner nobility. Carrier of diseases and transgressor of sexual, social and physical norms, the ugly woman horrifies and nauseates, provoking a violent response. The manner in which these women are 'defeatured' aligns their acquired ugliness with the erasure of identity rather than its consolidation. The usefulness of the ugly woman as a means of consolidating specific forms of masculine identity is particularly visible in some texts written in praise of unattractive mistresses. Works 'celebrating' ugly women ultimately draw attention to the male creative genius that is capable of transforming even unsightly female matter into compelling art. Eluding simple categorisations and dismantling the most fundamental of social and subjective binaries, ugly figures burst repeatedly on to the scene in early modern texts, often in the most unexpected of places.