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The Chemical Future of Our Relationships

Is there a pill for love? What about an anti-love drug, to help you get over your ex? This book argues that certain psychoactive substances, including MDMA—the active ingredient in Ecstasy—might help ordinary couples work through relationship difficulties and strengthen their connection. Others may help sever emotional ties during a breakup, with transformative implications for how we think about love. Oxford ethicists Julian Savulescu and Brian D. Earp build a case for conducting research into "love drugs" and "anti-love drugs" and explore their ethical implications for individuals and society. Why are we still in the dark about the effects of common medications on romantic partnerships? How can we overhaul scientific research norms to put interpersonal factors front and center? Biochemical interventions into love and relationships are not some far-off speculation. Our most intimate connections are already being influenced by drugs we ingest for other purposes. Controlled studies are already underway to see whether artificial brain chemicals might enhance couples' therapy. And conservative religious groups are already experimenting with certain medications to quash romantic desires—and even the urge to masturbate—among children and vulnerable sexual minorities. Simply put, the horse has bolted. Where it runs is up to us. Love is the Drug arms readers with the latest scientific knowledge as well as a set of ethical tools that you can use to decide for yourself if these sorts of medications should be a part of our society. Or whether a chemical romance might be right for you.

John Harris

19 Response to and reflections on chapters 3–18 John Harris I talked in my chapter at the beginning of this volume about my own efforts at self-improvement, a form of human enhancement which is not often discussed in the vast current literature on enhancement. It is now time to turn to the efforts of others to effect my improvement either by friendly criticism or commentary, or by sending in my direction thoughts from which I have undoubtedly benefitted and which I hope will interest and engage all readers of this book. All these papers deserve very detailed

in From reason to practice in bioethics
The morality of capacity-increasing technologies in the military

Throughout history, states have tried to create the perfect combatant, with superhuman physical and cognitive features akin to those of comic book superheroes. However, the current innovations have nothing to do with the ones from the past, and their development goes beyond a simple technological perspective. On the contrary, they are raising the prospect of a human-enhancement revolution that will change the ways in which future wars will be fought and may even profoundly alter the foundations upon which our modern societies are built. This book discusses the full ethical implications of these new technologies, making it a unique resource for students and scholars interested in the morality of warfare.

Refusing to adopt a binary vision, political theorist Jean-François Caron argues that, when analysed from an ethical viewpoint, the development and use of capacity-increasing technologies in the military is far more complex than it first appears, since it presents us with a significant moral dilemma. On the one hand, enhancing soldiers’ capacities can be interpreted as a moral obligation on the part of the military. On the other, such technologies might also end up harming fundamental moral principles of warfare. Without condemning them as evil and inadmissible, Professor Caron proposes a nuanced and balanced appraisal of capacity-increasing technologies in the military as a tool that ought to be used contingently on the respect of certain moral criteria.

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Jean-François Caron

). This possibility looks credible at first sight, as leading scientists studying gene therapy claim to have been contacted by numerous athletes and coaches (Franks, 2014 ). References Allhoff , Fritz et al. 2010 . ‘ Ethics on Human Enhancement: 25 Questions and Answers ’, Studies in Ethics, Law and Technology , Vol. 4 , No. 1

in A theory of the super soldier
Jean-François Caron

security risk, in the same way as the loss of an unmanned aerial vehicle over enemy territory incurs the risk of unintended technology transfer’ (Evans and Moreno, 2014 , p. 6). In the case of non-human enhanced technologies, such as drones or weapons, the military has traditional methods of protection, most notably by restricting its sales to untrusted states. If we transposed these methods to bio-engineered retired soldiers

in A theory of the super soldier
Elke Schwarz

the idea that life itself can be grasped in techno-scientific terms. Regarding contemporary understandings of the body and mind as material, Thacker provides a crucial insight here: ‘Once the brain can be analysed as a set of informational channels, then it follows that patterns can be replicated in hardware and software systems’, opening doors for ‘hardware’ interventions and virtual replications (2003: 74). Recent advancements in military human enhancements

in Death machines
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Exploding heads and the death of the chess-player
John Sharples

Reader: Classical and Contemporary Essays on the Science, Technology, and Philosophy of the Human Future (Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2013), p. 1. M. More, ‘1. The Philosophy of Transhumanism’, in ibid., p. 3. More, ‘1. The Philosophy of Transhumanism’, ‘4. Transhumanist Declaration’, and N. Bostrom, ‘3. Why I Want to be a Posthuman When I Grow Up’, in ibid., pp. 9, 14, 55, 29. A. Clark, ‘11. Re-Inventing Ourselves: The Plasticity of Embodiment, Sensing, and Mind’, and ‘Part III: Human Enhancement – The Cognitive Sphere’, in ibid., pp. 113, 111. J. J. Cohen, ‘Preface

in A cultural history of chess-players
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Amrita Pande

deemed ‘essential’, and at what cost. References Agar , N. ( 2004 ). Liberal Eugenics: In Defense of Human Enhancement . Malden, MA : Blackwell Publishing . Chatterjee , N. and Riley , N. E. ( 2001 ). Planning an Indian modernity: the gendered politics of fertility

in Birth controlled
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Brian D. Earp and Julian Savulescu

.” No disease or disorder here—just ordinary people seeking positive change. Griffiths and his collaborators believe that under appropriately supportive conditions, psilocybin can “reliably occasion deeply personally meaningful and often spiritually significant experiences.” Neither of us is particularly “spiritual,” but we have contributed to academic and public debates about the ethics of human enhancement, and we see some overlap between the two ideas. Unless you view the human condition as one big disease state (which seems like a stretch), attempts to improve

in Love is the Drug
Open Access (free)
Towards a future of techno-organic hybridity
Gill Haddow

recourse of the unique abilities of non-human animal organs – better the ‘clean machine’ than the ‘dirty animal’. Everyday cyborgs offer a narrative of the contemporary practices of modifying human bodies through bionic, prosthetic and cybernetic technologies that invite a critical understanding of the consequences for the person and whether enhancement does make people better (Van Den Eede, 2015 ). Increasingly, and running parallel to such a discourse on human enhancement, is a reliance on biomedicine for technological solutions to the developed world health

in Embodiment and everyday cyborgs