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Alain-Guy Sipowo

response to human rights violations by corporations, the continental system can intervene as a last defence. Practical reasons militate for such an intervention. A State’s shortage of financial resources and lack of expertise can be some of them, just to name a few. Most importantly, the political and social contexts in which violations take place make it unrealistic to expect

in African perspectives in international investment law

This book provides a critical exposition of the international law concerning child soldiers. It starts by looking at the situation of child soldiers in the world today, examining why children are recruited into armed forces and groups; why they volunteer for military service; and, once recruited, what treatment they receive. The book explores how perceptions of childhood and children's rights have changed, and how this has affected the ways in which child soldiers have been treated. It describes the activities of the United Nations with regard to the child soldier phenomenon. The book examines the legal regulation of the recruitment and use of children in hostilities. It shows that although international law comprehensively regulates the recruitment and use of child soldiers, owing to the plethora of treaties on the subject, states' obligations continue to differ and children can still lawfully be recruited and used to participate in armed conflict. The book discusses how, once recruited into armed forces and groups, international law treats child soldiers. It considers the status of child soldiers as combatants and as persons in the power of an adverse party in both international and internal armed conflicts, and states' obligations with regard the disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration of child soldiers. An unusual feature of how child soldiers are viewed is that they are often seen as both victims of human rights abuses and as human rights violators. Finally, the book examines the extent to which the recruitment and use of child soldiers is an international crime.

Melanie Klinkner

In the aftermath of conflict and gross human rights violations, victims have a right to know what happened to their loved ones. Such a right is compromised if mass graves are not adequately protected to preserve evidence, facilitate identification and repatriation of the dead and enable a full and effective investigation to be conducted. Despite guidelines for investigations of the missing, and legal obligations under international law, it is not expressly clear how these mass graves are best legally protected and by whom. This article asks why, to date, there are no unified mass-grave protection guidelines that could serve as a model for states, authorities or international bodies when faced with gross human rights violations or armed conflicts resulting in mass graves. The paper suggests a practical agenda for working towards a more comprehensive set of legal guidelines to protect mass graves.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Suhad Daher-Nashif

This article aims to shed light on the post-mortem practices for Palestinian dead bodies when there is suspicion of human rights violations by Israeli military forces. By focusing on the case of Omran Abu Hamdieh from Al-Khalil (Hebron), the article explores the interactions between Palestinian social-institutional agents, Israeli military forces and international medico-legal agents. Drawing on ethnographic and archival data, the article explores how the intersectionality between the various controlling powers is inscribed over the Palestinian dead bodies and structures their death rites. The article claims that inviting foreign medico-legal experts in the Palestinian context could reveal the true death story and the human rights violations, but also reaffirms the sovereignty of the Israeli military forces over the Palestinian dead and lived bodies.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Timothy Longman

the 1948 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, genocide is defined as ‘acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such: a. Killing members of the group; b. Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; … .’ 2 Umutesi was initially the most influential. The UN investigative report mapping human rights violations in Congo released in 2010 provided details and proof of massive human rights violation in Eastern Congo. Office of the High

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
A Belated but Welcome Theory of Change on Mental Health and Development
Laura Davidson

appalling human rights violations, as highlighted by the CRPD Committee (General Comment No.1 on Article 12, 2014). The ToC’s external working group itself comprised persons with lived experience of psychosocial disability, along with international development and humanitarian actors. Inclusion is also one of nine guiding principles within the ToC to ensure quality services, and one of three essential components of DfID’s suggested evaluative measurement system

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Arjun Claire

rights violations was seen as an act of complicity. However, over the years, as the nature of humanitarian intervention has changed, considerations of access have outweighed the impulse to speak out: post-1989, humanitarians no longer work at the margins of conflicts, but directly inside conflict zones, which pits public critiques directly against the host government’s position. Not surprisingly, MSF’s most visible example of témoignage recently

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Nazanin Zadeh-Cummings
Lauren Harris

2019 (interview with Daniel Wertz of National Committee on North Korea [NCNK], 2019). The 1718 Sanctions Committee website posted two exemptions notifications from October to December 2018. By contrast, ten exemptions were approved with a start date in January 2019. While advocacy aimed at changing North Korean government behaviour or raising awareness of human rights violations has been and remains largely a taboo area for organisations with active involvement inside the country, humanitarians have been targeting advocacy efforts at their home governments. One

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Valérie Gorin

human rights violations. They collaborated with MSF (and denounced for example the suspension of MSF from Rakhine State in April 2014) and shared the 1997 Nobel Peace Prize with other human rights NGOs for their role in the International Campaign to Ban Landmines. See their website: (accessed 22 May 2021). 6 See the access campaign website: (accessed 26 December 2020). 7 In 2019, MSF managed to resume its activities in Myanmar after months of negotiation with the government. See the data in the 2019

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Jeffrey Flynn

apt: humanitarian photography, broadly construed, is the use of photography to mobilise concern for distant suffering – whether that suffering is caused by famine or natural disaster, or by an atrocity, massacre, war, or human rights violations. In that way, the label humanitarian photography could lay claim to being the broadest available term for a range of visual cultures revolving around suffering while keeping in mind the different interpretative languages used at

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs