The Irish and the English in the seventeenth century
Author: Ian Campbell

Inspired both by debates about the origins of the modern ideology of race and also by controversy over the place of Ireland and the Irish in theories of empire in the early modern Atlantic world, Renaissance Humanism and Ethnicity before Race argues that ethnic discourse among the elite in early modern Ireland was grounded firmly in the Renaissance Humanism and Aristotelianism which dominated all the European universities before the Enlightenment. Irish and English, Catholic and Protestant, all employed theories of human society based on Aristotle’s Politics and the natural law of the medieval universities to construct or dismantle the categories of civility and barbarism. The elites operating in Ireland also shared common resources, taught in the universities, for arguing about the human body and its ability to transmit hereditary characteristics. Both in Ireland and elsewhere in Europe, these theories of human society and the human body underwent violent changes in the late seventeenth century under the impact of the early Enlightenment. These changes were vital to the development of race as we know it.

This book is the fruit of twenty years’ reflection on Islamic charities, both in practical terms and as a key to understand the crisis in contemporary Islam. On the one hand Islam is undervalued as a global moral and political force whose admirable qualities are exemplified in its strong tradition of charitable giving. On the other hand, it suffers from a crisis of authority that cannot be blamed entirely on the history of colonialism and stigmatization to which Muslims have undoubtedly been subjected – most recently, as a result of the "war on terror". The book consists of seventeen previously published chapters, with a general Introduction and new prefatory material for each chapter. The first nine chapters review the current situation of Islamic charities from many different viewpoints – theological, historical, diplomatic, legal, sociological and ethnographic – with first-hand data from the United States, Britain, Israel–Palestine, Mali and Indonesia. Chapters 10 to 17 expand the coverage to explore the potential for a twenty-first century "Islamic humanism" that would be devised by Muslims in the light of the human sciences and institutionalized throughout the Muslim world. This means addressing contentious topics such as religious toleration and the meaning of jihad. The intended readership includes academics and students at all levels, professionals concerned with aid and development, and all who have an interest in the future of Islam.

Ian Campbell

2 English humanism against Gaelic Irish society ሉሊ Degeneration, for Elizabethans and Jacobeans, meant leaving the civil or political life of Englishmen and taking up the barbarous or unpolitical life of Gaelic Irishmen. Richard Stanihurst wrote a description of the process in the late 1570s while living in the London household of Gerald Fitzgerald, eleventh earl of Kildare, as tutor to the earl’s heir Garret.1 The instance which Stanihurst chose took place when Gerald’s half-brother, ‘Silken’ Thomas Fitzgerald, lord Offaly and tenth earl of Kildare, rebelled

in Renaissance humanism and ethnicity before race
Ian Campbell

3 Gaelic humanism against English Irish society ሉሊ During the course of the seventeenth century a number of Gaelic Irish radicals distinguished Catholic and therefore truly civil Irishmen, from heretical and therefore truly barbarous Englishmen; some even insisted that all those of English descent carried a natural inclination towards heresy. This anti-English radical tradition proceeded in an historical mode and rested on relationships between law, custom, habituation, and religion. The natural law that rendered present actions just or unjust, had also applied

in Renaissance humanism and ethnicity before race
Ian Campbell

1 Two problems in the history of Irish humanism and ethnicity ሉሊ Shortly after the battle of Julianstown on 29 November 1641, the leaders of the Gaelic Irish who had risen in rebellion in Ulster met with representatives of their fellow Catholics from the English Pale at the hill of Crofty.1 Writing in the 1670s, Richard Bellings, himself a Pale Catholic, assigned one of the Gaelic Irish a short speech explaining his recourse to arms. This man, Rory O’More, complained that Irish Catholics were forced to choose either slavery in this world, because they were

in Renaissance humanism and ethnicity before race
Kate Soper

6 Thompson and socialist humanism Kate Soper Introduction My first encounter with the writings of E. P. Thompson was not The Making of the English Working Class, but The Poverty of Theory and other Essays. As a graduate student of Marxist philosophy at the time, taught and surrounded by convinced Althusserians and feeling much peer pressure to conform, though unpersuaded by structuralist antihumanism myself, I remember the pleasure and relief with which I read this work (and the chiding I received in some quarters for my enthusiasm). It was not that I could

in E. P. Thompson and English radicalism
Meg Holden

Introduction This chapter envisions a pragmatic approach to the development of social science scholarship. It seeks a way for scholarship to manoeuvre in between the poles of humanistic and post-humanistic responses to crisis; I will describe this approach as a pragmatic anti-anti-humanism. As a starting point emblematic of the pervasive sense of crisis that we face today, I focus on the global ecological crisis. In attempting a response to this crisis, a post-humanist turn has been a common response of those concerned about dire warnings of ecological losses

in The power of pragmatism
Ian Campbell

Lynch, archdeacon of Tuam, responded to O’Ferrall in his Alithinologia of 1664 and Supplementum 114 ሉ Renaissance humanism ሊ Alithinologiae of 1667. The archdeacon’s books defended the right of the Stuart monarchs to the kingdom of Ireland, and insisted on the firm allegiance of the English Irish to the Catholic faith. However, included in these Latin works was a distinctive defence of the English Irish nobility. Nobility was a concept and social phenomenon in which both Lynch and O’Ferrall had a great deal invested. John Lynch and Richard O’Ferrall both spent

in Renaissance humanism and ethnicity before race
Abstract only
Jonathan Benthall

with the state of scholarship in this field. The last third of the book ( Part II ) gives attention to what I have called Islamic humanism. Here (with the exception of Chapter 10 ) the emphasis is more on reviewing the work of other authors and should be read as tentative and provisional. I am well aware of the delicacy and complexity of the issues raised. This Introduction

in Islamic charities and Islamic humanism in troubled times
The structure of Islamic toleration
Jonathan Benthall

This chapter attempts to bring to bear some insights from cultural anthropology on the question of religious toleration, a cornerstone of modern humanism. It concludes, from examining in particular the respective historical attitudes of Christianity and Islam towards ‘polytheistic’ belief systems, that they both can claim their own tradition of

in Islamic charities and Islamic humanism in troubled times