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Authority and vision

John McGahern is one of those writers whose work continues to be appreciated across a range of readerships. As a writer who eschewed the notion of himself as 'artist' he addressed his task through a commitment to style, what he called the 'revelation of the personality through language'. McGahern's work began to receive critical attention only from when Denis Sampson's seminal study, Outstaring Nature's Eye: The Fiction of John McGahern was published in 1993. This book focuses on the physical landscape to show how the inadequacy of the State that emerged after 1922 is reflected in the characters' shifting relationship with the landscape, the connection has been made vulnerable through trauma and painful memory. It explores this sense of resentment and disillusionment in McGahern's novels, drawing parallels between the revolutionary memories and McGahern's own family experience. McGahern's All Over Ireland offers a number of fine stories, mostly set in Ireland, and dealing with distinctly Irish themes. He wrote a novel that is an example of openness, compassion and understanding for any form of strangeness. The vision of education and of the shaping of identity found in his writing is not an idiosyncratic one - it is consistent with much of the best thought within the tradition of liberal education. The book provides an intriguing comparison between McGahern and Flannery O'Connor, illustrating how diverse stories share an underlying current of brutality, demonstrating their respective authors' preoccupation with a human propensity towards evil.

Susan Park

that MIGA resisted TEAN socialisation before belatedly beginning to follow marketbased sustainable development through institutionalising IFC’s environmental standards. This highlights how an IO’s identity shapes how it consumes international norms. MIGA’s identity Like IFC, ideas for creating MIGA existed well before the organisation did. Drafts for the organisation were circulated in 1948 but negotiations continued through to the 1970s (Meron 1976: 31; Shihata 1988: 31–2). Wavering over the need for a multilateral political risk insurer continued much longer than

in World Bank Group interactions with environmentalists
Johanna Söderström

This chapter turns the focus instead to the political activity of these former combatants after war, asking what paths of political mobilization they have embarked on after coming home from war. In this chapter it becomes clear that war and homecoming experiences have left many traces on the former combatants’ political lives. These experiences, as well as the network and identity, shape their political engagement, both positively and negatively, and together they make up their political life. How their political mobilization waxes and wanes over the years, was in part captured through life diagrams drawn during the interviews. These different life paths can be divided into three types of mobilization paths: Resilient (sustained or increased political mobilization), Remobilized (falling in and out of politics, often multiple times), and Removed (leaving politics). This typology of mobilization paths shows how former combatants from each of the three cases follow similar paths. The distribution of individuals across these types, however, did seem to be gendered, as no women remobilized once they left politics. The chapter highlights how the war experience and the homecoming experience, as well as how their identity as a veteran and their networks, are understood as crucial in shaping these political paths, through both encouraging and depressing their political mobilization. The ways in which these pressures originate and reappear across their lives help us understand why former combatants, not only in these three cases, are often involved in long-term political mobilization.

in Living politics after war
Prisoners of the past
Author: Richard Jobson

This book examines the impact that nostalgia has had on the Labour Party’s political development since 1951. In contrast to existing studies that have emphasised the role played by modernity, it argues that nostalgia has defined Labour’s identity and determined the party’s trajectory over time. It outlines how Labour, at both an elite and a grassroots level, has been and remains heavily influenced by a nostalgic commitment to an era of heroic male industrial working-class struggle. This commitment has hindered policy discussion, determined the form that the modernisation process has taken and shaped internal conflict and cohesion. More broadly, Labour’s emotional attachment to the past has made it difficult for the party to adjust to the socioeconomic changes that have taken place in Britain. In short, nostalgia has frequently left the party out of touch with the modern world. In this way, this book offers an assessment of Labour’s failures to adapt to the changing nature and demands of post-war Britain.

Socialisation and the domestic reception of international norms
Kelly Kollman

democracies used the concept of social learning to illustrate the ways in which norms and identities shape behaviour in international society. They posit that actor identities foster social learning as membership in a community often implies adherence to specific norms. Like social learning, emulation is sociological in nature and occurs when states mimic or follow the policy examples of others without really considering their consequences or merits. It thus differs from social learning or learning of any kind by its lack of intellectual or deliberative engagement with new

in The same-sex unions revolution in western democracies
Open Access (free)
Alex J. Bellamy

about the meaning MUP_Bellamy_01_Intro 2 9/3/03, 9:18 I 3 of national identity. It looks at how conceptions of national identity shape social practices and emphasises the complex, overlapping and contradictory nature of national identity. It shows how the ideas discussed in the first two levels are often rejected when subjects perceive a disjuncture between ideas and lived experience. This level focuses on attempts to enforce a narrow understanding of Croatian national identity and the many sites of opposition that it produced. Chapters 5 and 6

in The formation of Croatian national identity
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Johanna Söderström

for each other. A reciprocal responsibility thus permeates these networks, or becomes the standard against which members evaluate each other. The role of the networks turned out to be very similar across the three cases, even if there were differences in how the networks formally developed and how the former combatants related to them. In Chapter 5, “Paths of mobilization”, it became clear that war and homecoming experiences have left many traces on the former combatants’ political lives. These experiences, as well as the network and identity

in Living politics after war
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The strong brown god of the Anthropocene
Joanne Yao

contested histories and identities shape different actors with differing visions of how to restore the river.

in The ideal river
Jason Statham’s sartorial style
Steven Gerrard

readings. Statham’s body has not only developed into a Perfect Birthday Suit in its own right, but has also become a conduit through which identity, shape, physique and ideological implications remain important. These components are projected outwards to a postmodern male audience that will accept him as a role model (fit father), reflection of themselves or an unattainable Zeus

in Crank it up
Adrian Hyde-Price

motivating people and groups toward some actions and away from others’ (Ross 1997 : 42). Identity and foreign policy One of the most important areas of theoretical innovation in foreign policy analysis over recent years has been the growing awareness that identities matter in international relations. Identities shape the definition of national and European interests and thereby constitute an important influence

in Rethinking European Union Foreign Policy