The Arctic region has been the subject of much popular writing. This book considers nineteenth-century representations of the Arctic, and draws upon an extensive range of evidence that will allow the 'widest connections' to emerge from a 'cross-disciplinary analysis' using different methodologies and subject matter. It positions the Arctic alongside more thoroughly investigated theatres of Victorian enterprise. In the nineteenth century, most images were in the form of paintings, travel narratives, lectures given by the explorers themselves and photographs. The book explores key themes in Arctic images which impacted on subsequent representations through text, painting and photography. For much of the nineteenth century, national and regional geographical societies promoted exploration, and rewarded heroic endeavor. The book discusses images of the Arctic which originated in the activities of the geographical societies. The Times provided very low-key reporting of Arctic expeditions, as evidenced by its coverage of the missions of Sir John Franklin and James Clark Ross. However, the illustrated weekly became one of the main sources of popular representations of the Arctic. The book looks at the exhibitions of Arctic peoples, Arctic exploration and Arctic fauna in Britain. Late nineteenth-century exhibitions which featured the Arctic were essentially nostalgic in tone. The Golliwogg's Polar Adventures, published in 1900, drew on adult representations of the Arctic and will have confirmed and reinforced children's perceptions of the region. Text books, board games and novels helped to keep the subject alive among the young.
telegraph, and the increased literacy levels resulting from an improving
education system, further aided this expansion. In addition the removal
of stamp duty enabled a reduction in the cover price. 1 In the middle of the century
publication of the illustratedweekly magazine forced certain changes on
the daily newspaper. Both published news items and features about the
Arctic, and in their different ways, had a considerable
‘on the spot’ in Italy, he later produced detailed
drawings that he sent to illustratedweeklies in New York, London,
and Paris. These images not only championed the Italian cause but
also helped create the historical legacy of General Giuseppe
Garibaldi, whose powerful and dashing presence came to embody the
shared ideals of both republicanism and liberty in the United
writer, ‘omnivorous reader’ and poet.
He won an IllustratedWeekly of India short-story competition, which so impressed British editor Stanley Jepson that he offered Abo an internship with the magazine. Long evenings holding forth in the pub meant Abo never completed his studies at Exeter University. Instead, he moved to Karachi and eventually married Maki, the renowned Pakistani poet and academic at Karachi University whose first poems were published by Oxford University Press in 1975. All the colonel's children
totalising ambition (expressed by Jorge Luis Borges in the epigraph to this book), any narrative about the Baroque must leave out as much as it includes. Yet a significant fact needs to be addressed. Although it had an important role in the central cultural and artistic debates analysed in the previous pages, and it was illustrated in mass visual culture up until the First World War, the Baroque is surprisingly absent from the mass visual culture produced during the Fascist ventennio . Covers of the most popular illustratedweeklies, such as the Rivista illustrata del
County of Cork (Cork: Purcell & Co., 1886), p. 23.
9 ‘Conservative meeting in Bristol’, The Scotsman , 16 November 1881; ‘The Gray boycott’, New York Times , 15 April 1886; Mike Huckabee on Twitter, https://twitter.com/GovMikeHuckabee/status/819946077713534980 (accessed 10 July 2020).
10 ‘Ireland under coercion’, Edinburgh Review , 168:344 (1888), p. 571; ‘Topics of the week’, The Graphic: An IllustratedWeekly Newspaper , 27 November 1880.
11 William Graham Sumner, ‘Industrial war’, The Forum (September 1886), p. 5; William Graham Sumner, ‘State
, including a regular series on MPs. 13 There were soon a number of imitators on the news-stands, including the Pictorial Times and the short-lived IllustratedWeekly Times . This new illustrated press brought a wider circulation to images of public figures, and brought them into the homes of the middle classes and the reading rooms of public institutions. As with the older caricatures, popular politicians featured only intermittently, usually at times of excitement. Initially at least, while an established figure such as O’Connell was deemed worthy of satire, the
half-tone blocks, and although there is a
photographic record of the conflict (especially Mathew Brady’s
work) it is more profitable to study the visual impact of the war
artists who worked for such illustratedweeklies as Harper’s. As
popular interest in the war increased, America became a nation of
newspaper readers dependent upon reports from war correspondents who saw their business more in terms of morale than objectivity. Harper’s, for example, published an engraving of a totally
fictitious account of Confederate soldiers bayoneting wounded
Union troops, while
close friendship which was perceived
between it and the illustrated press must also have contributed to the
low status of battle painting. Illustratedweekly newspapers had made
their appearance in the 1840s with the publication of the Illustrated
London News by Herbert Ingram. The ILN soon proved enormously
popular: in 1843, only a year after its inception, the circulation had
reached 66,000. In
Edith Hume’s journey to religious domestic illustration via Katwijk and Scheveningen beaches
The public exposure from these two exhibitions likely secured her first magazine commission in the July 1865 issue of Once a Week (1859–80).
This famous illustratedweekly, published by Bradbury and Evans, drew on an extensive number of renowned artists, such as John Leech, George Du Maurier, and John Everett Millais. Hume's illustration for a story entitled ‘For the Sake of Uniformity’ by Margaret Swayne ( Figure 6.1 ) demonstrates a Pre-Raphaelite influence on her work possibly gained at Heatherley's, where key