A battle of images is above all a psychological struggle. Unintended consequences are the rule rather than the exception. The book examines the role of images in media reports on terror from the nineteenth century to the present day. Looking at concrete case studies, Charlotte Klonk analyses image strategies and their patterns, traces their historical development and addresses the dilemma of effective counter strikes. She shows that the propaganda videos from the IS are nothing new. On the contrary, perpetrators of terror acts have always made use of images to spread their cause through the media – as did their enemy, the state. In the final chapter, Klonk turns to questions of ethics and considers the grounds for a responsible use of images. This is an indispensable book for understanding the background and dynamic of terror today.
tradition of satirical beast fables. 1 Although numerous
scholars have catalogued Shakespeare’s repeated use of animal
imagery in this play, 2
analyses of these images have tended to focus on symbolic and
iconographic meanings rather than looking at this imagepattern as
connecting the play to the beast fable genre, with the political and
satirical implications such an association implies. At the time of
History of an Art . Geneva:
Skira ; New
Moro , Juan Martínez . 1998 . Un Ensayo
Sobre Grabado [A Finales Del Siglo 20] . Santander:
Creática, Ediciones .
Mukerji , Chandra.
1983 . From
Graven Images: Patterns of Modern Materialism
Assassinations and bomb attacks in the late nineteenth and early twenty-first centuries
reaffirm the state’s inviolability by a display of its indomitable power. Drawing on the unambiguous images of friend and foe supplied by Russian news services, the press thus sought to push away the horror or to shift the terror back to its creators.
We can draw certain conclusions about readers’ expectations from the fact that these illustrated papers, which were among the leading publications in Western Europe, share the same imagepatterns. But it is difficult to tell whether it was the images that shaped the public’s imagination or vice versa, for relevant
image production in the media that we have to understand before we can consider the ethics underpinning our way of dealing with these images.
Butler speaks of ‘frames that govern the perceptible, that exercise a delimiting function, bringing an image into focus on condition that some portion of the visual field is ruled out’. 6 The term ‘framing’, which is commonly used in media and communication studies, 7 refers to repeatable structural devices that predetermine the way in which the media present events and frame their meaning. In what follows
context of terror we distinguish
between affective images that have the power to remind us of the pain of others
and those that numb us and should be resisted. Although Richard Drew’s photograph belongs in the first category, I do not reproduce it here, as it has already been
widely documented and for the time being a description is sufficient to evoke it
without exposing the victim beyond necessity.
On 19 March 1881, the Illustrated London News contained a shocking report: Czar
Alexander II of Russia had been murdered six days before, on 13 March, upon
Secret of Golfo Beach’ based on a photograph he has taken:
MATEO When I took the photo I didn’t see the couple kissing.
LENA And what’s the secret?
MATEO I don’t know. I have to write it to find out.
LENA We’re that couple.
Mateo uses the mystery of the couple in the photograph as a springboard to start a story, whereas Lena sees it as part of their own. Her cryptic statement, ‘We’re that couple’, verbalises the mythopoetic aesthetics at work. As in other Almodóvar films, images, patterns, and music recur to create a mosaic of symbols that feed each
Chandra Mukerji, From Graven Images: Patterns of Modern Materialism (New York: Columbia University Press, 1983); Bruno Latour, Reassembling the Social: An Introduction into Actor-Network-Theory (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005); Diana Coole and Samantha Frost (eds), New Materialisms: Ontology, Agency, and Politics (Durham/London: Duke University Press, 2010); Andreas Folkers, ‘Was ist neu am neuen Materialismus? Von der Praxis zum Ereignis’, in Tobias Goll, Daniel Keil, and Thomas Telios (eds), Critical Matter: Diskussionen eines neuen Materialismus
, which suggest the ability to sing (3) turn (10), and sit (12), and clear signs of intentionality (12b–14a, 16a). The underlying imagepattern here is what Barley would call a monster, an apparently animate creature with parts that do not quite add up. 28 In most riddles, this shadow monster will resolve into a straightforward recognisable object or creature, although the Exeter Book riddle sequence plays comically with this convention by including the occasional case that does not, like the One-Eyed Seller of Garlic of XII Hund Heafda (R.86). 29 The body part