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Power, ritual and knowledge

enquiries were underway, ritual, grand spectacle and the creation of a false omnipotence were judged crucial to the maintenance of imperial authority in the short term. As far as civilian officials were concerned, the process of collecting information about Africa meant that imperial authority increasingly rested on real power, rather than symbolic power. This underpinned the confidence that meant

in Exporting empire
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Politics, Pageantry and Colonialism

Royal tours of the 1800s and early 1900s, and since, have created much documentation, perhaps the most obvious record contained in newspapers and magazines, newsreels and then radio and television broadcasts. Tours expressed and promoted royal and imperial authority, though in some instances they revealed resistance against expansionist designs. The royal visitor was the central actor in a tour, but was surrounded by an entourage of other people and a store of paraphernalia that played essential roles. This book examines how presentation is managed when ambassadors are sent in place of the royal personage. Sultan Alauddin of Aceh mounted a royal tour by proxy in which he was embodied - and concealed - in his gifts and in the humbler persons of his placeholders. Prince Alfred Ernest Albert, Duke of Edinburgh, provided a template for later royal tours in three ways. First, he pioneered a new relationship with the Royal Navy as a training institution for British princes. Second, his lengthy visits paved the way for similarly ambitious global tours. Alfred's tours cultivated a range of trusted support staff. Imperial citizenship and even Britishness were embraced by non- English and non- British subjects of the queen. One young prince who was present in Britain at some of the most glittering events was Thakur Sahib Bhagvatsinh, a Rajput who ruled Gondal. The book also discusses Kaiser Wilhelm II's tour, King Sisowath and Emperor Khai Dinh's tour to France, the Portuguese crown prince's tour of Africa, and tours during Smuts's Raj.

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it within the wider international politics of the Second World War. Neither the Vichy nor the Free French imperial authorities were masters of their own destiny. A truism perhaps – under Marshal Philippe Pétain, the Vichy regime established in July 1940 governed only part of a defeated country under the gaze of the fascist powers. Charles de Gaulle’s Free French movement, fashioned in London in

in The French empire at war 1940–45
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were essential to ensure that taxes were paid, and a substantial part of the revenue thus raised was used to maintain those forces. Colonial armies Imperial authority rested ultimately on military power and the ability of Empire to mobilize its metropolitan and colonial armed forces. Most colonies had small, locally recruited bodies of soldiers and policemen who were lightly armed. In

in Guardians of empire

by indigenous peoples. We are not concerned, then, with whether these imperial crises are objectively similar – indeed, there were differences between each of these territories – but with the significance of their identification with each other on the grounds of a common ethnic and political sentiment. For centuries before 1886, in Ireland, North America, the Caribbean and India, imperial authorities

in ‘An Irish Empire’?
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Africa, colonial officials and the construction of the British Imperial State, c. 1900–1939

This book is a study of the colonial officials who governed British Africa between 1900 and the Second World War. Historians have to date failed to provide a detailed examination of what caused these ‘men on the spot’ to think and act in the ways they did. Drawing on a vast range of hitherto underexplored private papers, this book assesses the scope of their different attitudes and endeavours. It considers the role of background, education, training, British culture, social and intellectual networks across Africa, and personal self-interest in shaping the ways that officials related to Africans and to one another, and their ideas of race, empire, governance, development, and duty. It considers the implications of these officials’ mental landscapes for some of the key theories of empire to have emerged in recent years.

As imperial authority was established, towns and cities grew and spread into the interior of continents. The morphology of such urban settlements was embedded in economic, social and racial requirements, in zoning and in the creation of buildings that would be climatically comfortable. This chapter particularly examines structures such as town halls and assembly and parliament buildings, as constitutional developments required them. While these were the characteristics of what is known as formal empire, settlements of Europeans pursuing economic objectives also created familiar buildings in settings of informal empire, for example in the Middle or Far East. Finally, the chapter examines the wholly new development of hill stations, designed for the comfort, recreation and health of Europeans. Generally associated with India, hill stations also appeared in South-East Asia, the Far East, Australia, Africa and the Caribbean.

in The British Empire through buildings
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referred to as a gateway or a ‘bridgehead’ to South and Southeast Asia. Although there is renewed interest in the connectivity of the frontiers, both Xinjiang and Yunnan have always had strong economic, cultural, political and social links to Central and Southeast Asia respectively. During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, British agents in Kashgar and Tengyue were stationed at the periphery of the British Empire. Despite this isolation, their consular districts lay centrally between different British imperial authorities. Consuls represented the

in Law across imperial borders
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for their persons and property was threatened by the insecurity of society. Guilt and dread of failure coloured their actions as they went about the inequitable business of capitalism. The rapid spread of disease among people living in extremely close quarters threatened their very health. Demands for assistance made by this increasingly urbanized population forced a reaction from both the ecclesiastical and secular imperial authorities. As these two entities were locked in a larger political wrestling match, cities and citizens were often

in Hospitals and charity
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nature and a tacit recognition of the links between scientific authority and imperial power. They did not necessarily preclude collaboration with the imperial authorities in the collection of specimens. Nor did they preclude a broader, collective pride in the intellectual achievements of the Hispanic World. Some creoles, as we have seen, actually crossed the Atlantic to act at the heart of Spain’s scientific projects

in Conquering nature in Spain and its empire, 1750–1850