This chapter explores the issue of the relation between metropole and colony, as well as of the loyalty of imperial subjects, by exploring the phenomenon of compensation, paid by the government in London to those who had incurred losses in relation to the empire. It is, therefore, a study of imperialism in practice, and of the risks associated with imperial expansion, in terms of the response from the centre to failure at the periphery. This is undertaken in order to analyse the assumptions and principles that structured the making, maintenance and loss of empire, themes that require much greater attention than they have received hitherto.
Most Cypriots and British today do not know that Cypriots even served in the Great War. This book contributes to the growing literature on the role of the British non-settler empire in the Great War by exploring the service of the Cypriot Mule Corps on the Salonica Front, and after the war in Constantinople. This book speaks to a number of interlocking historiographies, contributing to various debates especially around enlistment/volunteerism, imperial loyalty and veterans' issues. At the most basic level, it reconstructs the story of Cypriot Mule Corps' contribution, of transporting wounded men and supplies to the front, across steep mountains, with dangerous ravines and in extreme climates. The book argues that Cypriot mules and mule drivers played a pivotal role in British logistics in Salonica and Constantinople, especially the former. It explores the impact of the war on Cypriot socio-economic conditions, particularly of so many men serving abroad on the local economy and society. The issues that arose for the British in relation to the contracts they offered the Cypriots, contracts offered to the muleteers, and problems of implementing the promise of an allotment scheme are also discussed. Behavioural problems one finds with military corps, such as desertion and crime, were not prevalent in the Cypriot Mule Corps. The book also explores the impact of death and incapacity on veterans and dependants, looking at issues that veterans faced after returning and resettling into Cypriot life.
employment it offered in order to alleviate their relative poverty.
Ultimately, for the British authorities the perceived imperialloyalty of colonial naval recruits was considered more important
than any seafaring ability they might possess, inherent or
Despite their relatively small numerical size, this
book has shown that colonial naval forces and the cultures they
small yet significant literature, especially around the involvement of
Indians, east Africans and Jamaicans in the British West Indies
Regiment. Including the Cypriot case within this historiography will
contribute to various debates, especially around
enlistment/volunteerism, imperialloyalty and veterans issues.
Additionally, this study explores the agency and ‘voices’ of
the Cypriots, situating
created by mass
migration; the second section considers the role of colonial missionary
societies in promoting religion and imperialloyalty; the third looks at
the characteristics of clerical migrants to the Australian colonies of
New South Wales (NSW) and Victoria as their numbers peaked in the 1880s
and 1890s; the final section looks at the development of colonial
religious nationalism, typically
This collection of essays reappraises the origins and nature of the first British empire. Produced in the wake of protracted and sometimes divisive debates about how best to approach this topic, methodologically and thematically, and in the wake of the so-called ‘cultural turn’, it offers new perspectives and approaches, from some of the most important scholars working in the field, both senior and junior. This is not a matter of returning to older modes of scholarship but rather of learning from the ‘new imperial history’ while also re-integrating political and institutional perspectives. It is not a matter of turning from the experience of empire on the periphery to the study of the ‘official’ mind of empire, but rather of exploring contemporary debates, both within the metropole and across the empire, and how these impacted upon imperial ‘policy’ and its implementation, not least in the face of fairly profound challenges on the ground. These debates ranged widely, and were political and intellectual as well as religious and administrative, and they related to ideas about political economy, about legal geography and about sovereignty, as well as about the messy realities of the imperial project, including the costs and losses of empire, collectively and individually. This book will be of interest to historians and political scientists working in a range of different areas, far beyond merely scholars of empire, and its novel approaches and provocative arguments will help to shape the field on this most important of topics.
Through a study of the British Empire's largest women's patriotic organisation, formed in 1900 and still in existence, this book examines the relationship between female imperialism and national identity. It throws light on women's involvement in imperialism; on the history of ‘conservative’ women's organisations; on women's interventions in debates concerning citizenship and national identity; and on the history of women in white settler societies. After placing the Imperial Order Daughters of the Empire (IODE) in the context of recent scholarly work in Canadian, gender and imperial history, and post-colonial theory, the book follows the IODE's history through the twentieth century. Chapters focus upon the IODE's attempts to create a British Canada through its maternal feminist work in education, health, welfare and citizenship. In addition, the book reflects on the IODE's responses to threats to Anglo-Canadian hegemony posed by immigration, World Wars and Communism, and examines the complex relationship between imperial loyalty and settler nationalism. Tracing the organisation into the postcolonial era, where previous imperial ideas are outmoded, it considers the transformation from patriotism to charity, and the turn to colonisation at home in the Canadian North.
Hailed on its reception as an ' indication to the world of the unity of the peoples of the Commonwealth,' The Queen in Australia (1954) conjoined documentary film and Cold War politics with the Queen herself to represent the 1953-54 Royal Tour of the Pacific. Reports of the time exhausted superlatives to convey the tour's magnificence and the cheering crowds' celebration as they assembled in remarkable numbers across the seventy days of Australia's 'royal summer'. Its producer Stanley Hawes, a veteran of the British Documentary Movement, celebrated the renewal of bonds of imperial loyalty, stitching disparate territories of the Commonwealth into the fabric of a unified 'free world '. The film put public communication patterns of influence and alliance to the complex task of 'rebranding' and repositioning imperial relations after World War Two, a period when white racism was exposed to some measure of global scrutiny. Drawing on the extensive archive of correspondence between key Movement figures, this chapter examines the film's reordering of Australian racial relations and explores some of the costs of the Queen's managed encounters with Aboriginal peoples, Torres Strait Islanders and delegations brought from Papua and New Guinea.
unspoken, notions of British citizenship, which is why they stressed
imperialloyalty, unity, service, education, and
‘character’. A citizenship built upon liberalism and
tolerance is at its heart consensual. Citizenship has a dual nature:
it is both a political idea, setting out the rights and
responsibilities of membership of a state, and a social and cultural
idea, a collective
Indigenous histories, settler colonies and Queen Victoria
Maria Nugent and Sarah Carter
, whether delivered to them by visiting princes, resident
missionaries, government officials, or ordinary settlers, and they were
commonly deemed in need of lessons in imperialloyalty and subjecthood,
as Amanda Nettelbeck’s chapter in particular shows. As more than a
name, Queen Victoria became incorporated into the lexicons and
vernaculars that were used for cross-cultural conversations carried out