This chapter examines the primary and secondary periods in Central Africa, and the ways in which they began to give way to the Hunt. White hunters appeared in Central Africa from the 1850s, and by the 1870s and 1880s they had become very nearly a flood. The exploits of Frederick Lugard illustrate the manner in which hunters, campaigners and administrators fused in the years immediately before and after the establishment of white rule. In 1890, the haphazard intrusions of hunters, prospectors, traders and missionaries had been replaced by the systematic invasion of the British South Africa Company. The Union Castle Line guides to East and southern Africa devoted a great deal of attention to African fauna, hunting and game laws. If game laws did little to hinder the white onslaught they were largely irrelevant to Africans. Africans were denied access to game primarily through the operation of gun laws.

in The Empire of Nature
The Radcliffe boundary commission and the partition of Punjab

This book is the first full-length study of the 1947 drawing of the Indo-Pakistani boundary in Punjab. It uses the Radcliffe commission, headed by Sir Cyril Radcliffe , as a window onto the decolonisation and independence of India and Pakistan. Examining the competing interests that influenced the actions of the various major players, the book highlights British efforts to maintain a grip on India even as the decolonisation process spun out of control. It examines the nature of power relationships within the colonial state, with a focus on the often-veiled exertion of British colonial power. With conflict between Hindus , Muslims and Sikhs reaching unprecedented levels in the mid-1940s , British leaders felt compelled to move towards decolonization. The partition was to be perceived as a South Asian undertaking, with British officials acting only as steady and impartial guides. Radcliffe's use of administrative boundaries reinforced the impact of imperial rule. The boundaries that Radcliffe defined turned out to be restless divisions, and in both the 1965 and 1971 wars India and Pakistan battled over their Punjabi border. After the final boundary, known as the 'Radcliffe award', was announced, all sides complained that Radcliffe had not taken the right 'other factors' into account. Radcliffe's loyalty to British interests is key to understanding his work in 1947. Drawing on extensive archival research in India, Pakistan and Britain, combined with innovative use of cartographic sources, the book paints a vivid picture of both the partition process and the Radcliffe line's impact on Punjab.

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Cricket, Culture and Society

Sports history offers many profound insights into the character and complexities of modern imperial rule. This book examines the fortunes of cricket in various colonies as the sport spread across the British Empire. It helps to explain why cricket was so successful, even in places like India, Pakistan and the West Indies where the Anglo-Saxon element remained in a small minority. The story of imperial cricket is really about the colonial quest for identity in the face of the colonisers' search for authority. The cricket phenomenon was established in nineteenth-century England when the Victorians began glorifying the game as a perfect system of manners, ethics and morals. Cricket has exemplified the colonial relationship between England and Australia and expressed imperialist notions to the greatest extent. In the study of the transfer of imperial cultural forms, South Africa provides one of the most fascinating case studies. From its beginnings in semi-organised form through its unfolding into a contemporary internationalised structure, Caribbean cricket has both marked and been marked by a tight affiliation with complex social processing in the islands and states which make up the West Indies. New Zealand rugby demonstrates many of the themes central to cricket in other countries. While cricket was played in India from 1721 and the Calcutta Cricket Club is probably the second oldest cricket club in the world, the indigenous population was not encouraged to play cricket.

Radcliffe’s private deliberations

existing boundaries were, after all, symbols of British rule. Radcliffe’s use of administrative boundaries reinforced the impact of imperial rule. The territory of the raj was honeycombed with boundaries of all kinds, which had been maintained partly as a means of perpetuating British imperial control, although many had Mughal origins. 24 Radcliffe’s award retained for the

in Borders and conflict in South Asia
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English education in India may be seen as a tool for the cultural domination of Indians, designed to cement and extend the dominion already effected through military and economic means, makes explicit a central problem confronting an anti-colonial and post-colonial writer such as Rushdie, whose literary language of choice is English. Briefly stated: by using English Rushdie lays himself open to the charge that he is not only accepting the legacy of British imperial rule but legitimising the culturally imperialistic act that brought English into being as a sub

in Salman Rushdie

Their immediate target was Italy’s assault on Ethiopia, but their ultimate aim was larger: undermining imperial rule, specifically British imperial rule, which had limited their own prospects in Trinidad. Growing up in Trinidad, Padmore and James had shared both a Western education and a very restricted opportunity to use it in a colonial society firmly controlled by the British government and a small

in Ending British rule in Africa

ones. The latter remained within the Empire, of course, which confused their status to some, for their local white minorities could in effect rule as they wished. By the mid-1890s, the distinction between direct imperial rule from London through the High Commission and rule by self-governing colonists was clear to most African rulers and members of

in The South African War reappraised

imperial rule. Gandhi’s non-cooperation movement gained further international attention during the Prince of Wales’s 1921 tour of India, when, as occurred in Allahabad and several other Indian cities, the Prince was greeted not by cheering crowds but by virtually no one. As Chandrika Kaul points out, royal tours could consolidate existing loyalty, but they could not create it when it was absent – or

in Crowns and colonies
Open Access (free)
The Colonial Medical Service in British Africa
Editor: Anna Greenwood

A collection of essays about the Colonial Medical Service of Africa in which a group of distinguished colonial historians illustrate the diversity and active collaborations to be found in the untidy reality of government medical provision. The authors present important case studies in a series of essays covering former British colonial dependencies in Africa, including Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zanzibar. These studies reveal many new insights into the enactments of colonial policy and the ways in which colonial doctors negotiated the day-to-day reality during the height of Imperial rule in Africa. The book provides essential reading for scholars and students of colonial history, medical history and colonial administration.

The political and aesthetic imagination of Edwardian imperialists

Some of the most compelling and enduring creative work of the late Victorian and Edwardian Era came from committed imperialists and conservatives. This book explores the relationship of the artists with conservatism and imperialism, movements that defy easy generalisations in 1899. It does so by examining the work of writers Rudyard Kipling, Joseph Conrad, Rider Haggard and John Buchan along with the composer Edward Elgar and the architect Herbert Baker. The book presents an analysis of their mutual infatuation with T. E. Lawrence, or Lawrence of Arabia, who represented all their dreams for the future British Empire. It also explores the reasons why Lawrence did not, could not, perform the role in which his elder admirers cast him, as creative artist and master statesman of British Empire. Haggard's intrusion into Sigmund Freud's dream world at a critical point in the development of psychoanalytic theory suggests a divergent approach to the novels of imperial adventure. Writing imaginative literature about India as an imperialist enabled Kipling to explore a whole universe of perverse and forbidden pleasures without blowing the top off the volcano. Elgar occupies a higher position in the world of classical music than anyone imagined even at the zenith of his popularity in the Edwardian era. John Buchan mixed art and politics to a greater extent than any British writer, especially with his 'The Loathly Opposite'. The real-life political counterparts of the imperial romance were Britain's experiments with indirect rule from Fiji and Zululand to Nigeria and Tanganyika.