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Representing naval manhood in the British Empire, 1870–1918
Author: Mary A. Conley

The later nineteenth century was a time of regulation and codification, which was part of the Victorian search for reliability and respectability. This book examines the intersection between empire, navy, and manhood in British society from 1870 to 1918. It sheds light upon social and cultural constructions of working-class rather than elite masculinities by focusing on portrayals of non-commissioned naval men, the 'lower deck', rather than naval officers. Through an analysis of sources that include courts-martial cases, sailors' own writings, and the HMS Pinafore, the book charts new depictions of naval manhood during the Age of Empire. It was a period of radical transformation of the navy, intensification of imperial competition, democratisation of British society, and advent of mass culture. The book argues that popular representations of naval men increasingly reflected and informed imperial masculine ideals in Victorian and Edwardian Britain. It explains how imperial challenges, technological changes and domestic pressures transformed the navy and naval service from the wake of the Crimean War to the First World War. How female-run naval philanthropic organisations domesticated the reputation of naval men by refashioning the imagery of the drunken debauched sailor through temperance and evangelical campaigns is explained. The naval temperance movement was not singular in revealing the clear class dimensions in the portrayal of naval manhood. The book unveils how the British Bluejacket as both patriotic defender and dutiful husband and father stood in sharp contrast to the stereotypic image of the brave but bawdy tar of the Georgian navy.

Karl Polanyi (1886–1964) returned to public discourse in the 1990s, when the Soviet Union imploded and globalization erupted. Best known for The Great Transformation, Polanyi’s wide-ranging thought anticipated twenty-first-century civilizational challenges of ecological collapse, social disintegration and international conflict, and warned that the unbridled domination of market capitalism would engender nationalist protective counter-movements. In Karl Polanyi and Twenty-First-Century Capitalism, Radhika Desai and Kari Polanyi Levitt bring together prominent and new thinkers in the field to extend the boundaries of our understanding of Polanyi's life and work. Kari Polanyi Levitt's opening essay situates Polanyi in the past century shaped by Keynes and Hayek, and explores how and why his ideas may shape the twenty-first century. Her analysis of his Bennington Lectures, which pre-dated and anticipated The Great Transformation, demonstrates how Central European his thought and chief concerns were. The next several contributions clarify, for the first time in Polanyi scholarship, the meaning of money as a fictitious commodity. Other contributions resolve difficulties in understanding the building blocks of Polanyi's thought: fictitious commodities, the double movement, the United States' exceptional development, the reality of society and socialism as freedom in a complex society. The volume culminates in explorations of how Polanyi has influenced, and can be used to develop, ideas in a number of fields, whether income inequality, world-systems theory or comparative political economy. Contributors: Fred Block, Michael Brie, Radhika Desai, Michael Hudson, Hannes Lacher, Kari Polanyi Levitt, Chikako Nakayama, Jamie Peck, Abraham Rotstein, Margaret Somers, Claus Thomasberger, Oscar Ugarteche Galarza.

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Mary A. Conley

that emerged during the fifty years of this study. Characterisations of Victorian naval manhood imparted the virtues of the imperial manly ideal, valorising discipline, duty and a moral Christian ethos. However, notions of manliness were recast by the turn of the century in the wake of intense imperial competition, the experience of war and the advent of mass politics. While manliness now celebrated the body, action and

in From Jack Tar to Union Jack
The iconography of Anglo-American inter-imperialism
Stephen Tuffnell

. The bluster and aggressiveness of British expansion was also referenced in the more unlikely figure of an anthropomorphised bull. Like the rampaging lion, John Bull as a bull was used to express the disproportionate and unwieldy power of Britain. As European imperial competition surged over access to Chinese markets and territorial concessions in the aftermath of the Sino-Japanese War, William Dalrymple's centrefold of March 1898 parodied John Bull as the Bull in a China Shop ( Figure 4.6 ): a warning to the ‘European trouble-makers’ if ‘England doesn't get free

in Comic empires
Michael John Law

War and economic depression, building did not begin in earnest until the mid-­1920s. In its early years, this network of arterial and bypass roads provided a powerful, well-­engineered, modernistic environment that could be explored at high speed by the wealthy drivers of the period. By the 1930s these modern roads formed part of an imperial competition with those built in Germany and Italy. Laissez-­ faire planning policy resulted in ribbon development. This had two effects. First it provoked the building of housing alongside the roads that formed new areas of

in The experience of suburban modernity
Joanne Yao

the balance of power in Europe. The first section details the threat posed by inter-imperial competition to power balances within European international society, and argues that King Leopold II of Belgium's shocking territorial gains in the Congo were a direct result of maintaining this delicate balance. The chapter then explores the two European models that diplomats hoped to transplant from Europe to West Africa – the establishment of freedom of navigation and commerce along the Congo and the creation of an international commission to govern and improve the river

in The ideal river
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Rhetorics of empire
Martin Thomas and Richard Toye

those claiming that their variety of colonialism was singularly benevolent were not, at the same time, aware that inter-imperial competition had its limits. Whatever the rhetorical rivalries they engendered, empire building and empire dissolution for much of the twentieth century ran along parallel tracks. What Richard Drayton has labelled the ‘masked condominium’, the underlying shared interests of

in Rhetorics of empire
Open Access (free)
Ontologies of connection, reconstruction of memory
Jeremy C.A. Smith

, inter-​imperial competition and ‘noble savage’ representation took the place of inter-​cultural curiosity. For the second new-​ world zone, Western colonialism was going to be a multinational affair that included Russians and Germans as late imperialists, as well as the United States in its colonial experiments. The British and French entered as the most expansive and experienced imperial powers. Imperial integration of the Pacific and linkages with other world regions only began in the late eighteenth century, even though voyages of exploration had begun 250 years

in Debating civilisations
The production of political space in the early modern colonial Atlantic
Mark Shirk

of rival states and trading lanes proved to be a legitimate casus belli (Glete, 2000 ). Interstate or inter-imperial competition was often undertaken by privateers – sea raiders with ‘letters of marque’ from government officials. Shortly after arriving in the New World, Spain discovered gold and silver in South and Central America, giving it a massive advantage by

in The Sea and International Relations
A new dawn for popular sovereignty or populism?
Anna Vincenzi

. 7 Recent historiographical accounts that characterise the American Revolution as an ‘imperial’ revolution – to be understood in a context of imperial competition – and depict it as less transformative, less radical

in People power