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Imperial power, both formal and informal, and research in the natural sciences were closely dependent in the nineteenth century. This book examines a portion of the mass-produced juvenile literature, focusing on the cluster of ideas connected with Britain's role in the maintenance of order and the spread of civilization. It discusses the political economy of Western ecological systems, and the consequences of their extension to the colonial periphery, particularly in forms of forest conservation. Progress and consumerism were major constituents of the consensus that helped stabilise the late Victorian society, but consumerism only works if it can deliver the goods. From 1842 onwards, almost all major episodes of coordinated popular resistance to colonial rule in India were preceded by phases of vigorous resistance to colonial forest control. By the late 1840s, a limited number of professional positions were available for geologists in British imperial service, but imperial geology had a longer pedigree. Modern imperialism or 'municipal imperialism' offers a broader framework for understanding the origins, long duration and persistent support for overseas expansion which transcended the rise and fall of cabinets or international realignments in the 1800s. Although medical scientists began to discern and control the microbiological causes of tropical ills after the mid-nineteenth century, the claims for climatic causation did not undergo a corresponding decline. Arthur Pearson's Pearson's Magazine was patriotic, militaristic and devoted to royalty. The book explores how science emerged as an important feature of the development policies of the Colonial Office (CO) of the colonial empire.

British imperial geology in the nineteenth century
Robert A. Stafford

much to the precedent established by the foundation of the Geological Survey of Great Britain in 1835, but imperial geology had a longer pedigree. Cook’s orders for his first voyage of 1768–71 included an injunction to search for valuable minerals in the South Pacific, and Joseph Banks and the naturalists who sailed in the Endeavour proved assiduous collectors of mineralogical as well as botanical

in Imperialism and the natural world
Swiss missionaries and anthropology
Patrick Harries

solitaire . Texet établi et annoté par Louis-Martin Chauffer. Paris : La Pléiade , 1933 . Rousseau , Jean-Jacques . 1965 [ 1758 ]. Lettre à M. d’Alembert sur les spectacles . Paris : Garnier . Stafford , R.A. 1990 . ‘ Annexing the Landscapes of the Past: British Imperial Geology in the Nineteenth

in Ordering Africa
John M. MacKenzie

Imperialism , Cambridge, 1989; Robert A. Stafford, ‘Annexing the landscapes of the past: British imperial geology in the nineteenth century’, in John M. MacKenzie (ed.), Imperialism and the Natural World , Manchester, 1990, pp. 67–89. 11 Theodore Roosevelt, African Game Trails , 1910, p. 3

in Popular imperialism and the military 1850–1950
The Canterbury Museum, Christchurch
John M. MacKenzie

Nelson province during his geological survey. A nearperfect skeleton, it went to the Nelson museum, which presented it to the Imperial Geological Museum in Vienna, which cannily made money from preparing plaster casts. This was, no doubt, a lesson to Haast. In 1863, goldminers in Central Otago found a moa and presented it to the York Museum. Moa bones soon supplemented (but did not replace) bird skins as his exchange

in Museums and empire