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Brian Sudlow

The conditions of individual secularisation described in Chapter 1 posed two sets of moral problems for believers in France and England at that time. The first concerns how human behaviour is to be mapped out if belief in God has become deistic or has collapsed into atheism. The second concerns the alternative moral criteria to counter the anthropocentrism transmitted by individual secularisation. These two sets of problems provide vital perspectives from which to read French and English Catholic literature in the late nineteenth and

in Catholic literature and secularisation in France and England, 1880–1914
Duncan Sayer

Introduction As archaeologists working in contemporary theoretical paradigms, we tend to look for the individual through discourses and cultural performances around personhood, material culture, gender or age (Fowler, 2004 ; Lucy, 1997 ; Martin, 2014 ; Felder, 2015 ). In part this research priority is driven by a twenty-first century perspective, which focuses on social questions through a lens of contemporary individualism. However, the individual may not always have been created within this frame. Who is the individual within a historic lineage, a large

in Early Anglo-Saxon cemeteries
Geoffrey Cubitt

2 MEMORY AND THE INDIVIDUAL In everyday life, if not always in scholarly discourse, when we speak of memory and remembering, we tend to mean something that we take to be personal and attributable to individuals. We all know what it feels like to have a memory of something, to strive to remember, to be aware of having forgotten, and we regard these experiences as ones that are at once part of the common human condition and yet innate, for each of us, in our existence as separate and self-conscious individual beings. Our memories seem (in Fentress and Wickham

in History and memory
Gerd Bayer

7 Types, characters, individuals The novel as a literary genre relies strongly on characters as a means both to present its content and to differentiate itself from other genres. While dramatic texts are also frequently built around highly developed protagonists, they rarely allow for an external discussion of character. It is realistic fiction that, as J. Hillis Miller notes, has ‘the ability to create powerful phantasms of personalities’.1 Miller dutifully observes that critics habitually share ‘[t]‌he assumption that the primary function of novels is to

in Novel horizons
Tennyson and the enlistment into military masculinity
Lorenzo Servitje

• 8 • ‘And the individual withers’: Tennyson and the enlistment into military masculinity Lorenzo Servitje Tennyson, peering into the future, was attempting to see great forests – the big picture – without singling out individual trees. He had more luck than most of us today, who seem to find individual trees obscuring our vision. —William Turner When Lieutenant General William Turner, commander of the United States’ large-scale military airlift operations during the Second World War, suggests that Alfred Lord Tennyson aimed to see the larger context rather

in Martial masculinities
A micro-structural analysis
Dana M. Williams

2 Anarchists as individuals: a micro-structural analysis How can a rational being be ennobled by anything that is not obtained by its own exertions? (Mary Wollstonecraft)1 Anarchists are people – but what kinds of people? Social movements must be composed of individuals. But what kinds of individuals? Anarchist movements are so called not only because of who they involve, but also in spite of those individuals’ characteristics. Key concerns for movement scholars are how participants identify socially and politically, what the movements’ class composition are

in Black flags and social movements
Creating Connections on the Global Film Festival Circuit
Luke Robinson

What role do individuals play in sustaining the so-called global film festival network? This article considers this question through case studies of four specialist Chinese-language film festivals in London. It argues that while the global circuit shapes the institutional appearance of these smaller events, the kinds of strategic collaborations that the organisers of the latter effect at the former – striking up connections with directors and sales agents at film markets, for example – are key ways in which global relationships and A-list events are built from the ground up. These mutually related but unstable interactions allow us to rethink the network as an assemblage of events and individuals, addressing the analytical problem of scale in film festivals studies in the process.

Film Studies
Mairi Cowan

When Margaret Craufurd established an anniversary in 1508 at her parish church of St Nicholas, Aberdeen, she began her foundation charter with a clear statement of individual spiritual responsibility. ‘We shall all stand before the judgment-seat of our Lord Jesus Christ to receive according as we have done in the body whether it be good or whether it be evil’, the charter

in Death, life, and religious change in Scottish towns, c.1350–1560
Nadia Kiwan

8 From individual to collective subjectivities? Introduction Chapter 7 revealed that a number of interviewees mobilise a sense of individual subjectivity and agency. However, what about the question of mobilising a collective sense of subjectivity or agency? It has already been pointed out that a process of individual subjectivation involves an, albeit difficult, reconciliation of individual and community, of social and cultural specificities. Do young French-North Africans enter into this process of subjectivation on a collective level? In other words, do they

in Identities, discourses and experiences
Open Access (free)
Jonathan Atkin

8 Three individuals A new type of warfare demanded a new type of response. Amid the jagged and broken setting, the metaphorical usage of the overwhelming effect of man’s new and mechanised forms of warfare on the natural landscape became common. We have seen in Chapter 7 how this, in turn, could act as a trigger on some individuals to encompass a humanistic appreciation of the wrongness of war itself. An awareness of the conflict’s malign effects seemed to reach beyond the desolation of Nature. There now occurred a perceived alteration of the steady progress of

in A war of individuals