‘Marx’s Economy and Beyond’ and Other Essays
Editors: Mark Harvey and Norman Geras

This book arose out of a friendship between a political philosopher and an economic sociologist, and their recognition of an urgent political need to address the extreme inequalities of wealth and power in contemporary societies.

The book provides a new analysis of what generates inequalities in rights to income, property and public goods in contemporary societies. It claims to move beyond Marx, both in its analysis of inequality and exploitation, and in its concept of just distribution. In order to do so, it critiques Marx’s foundational Labour Theory of Value and its closed-circuit conception of the economy. It points to the major historical transformations that create educational and knowledge inequalities, inequalities in rights to public goods that combine with those to private wealth. In two historical chapters, it argues that industrial capitalism introduced new forms of coerced labour in the metropolis alongside a huge expansion of slavery and indentured labour in the New World, with forms of bonded labour lasting well into the twentieth century. Only political struggles, rather than any economic logic of capitalism, achieved less punitive forms of employment. It is argued that these were only steps along a long road to challenge asymmetries of economic power and to realise just distribution of the wealth created in society.

Author: Ebun Joseph

With race as a central theme, this book presents racial stratification as the underlying system which accounts for the difference in outcomes of Whites and Blacks in the labour market. Critical race theory (CRT) is employed to discuss the operation, research, maintenance and impact of racial stratification. The power of this book is the innovative use of a stratification framework to expose the pervasiveness of racial inequality in the labour market. It teaches readers how to use CRT to investigate the racial hierarchy and it provides a replicable framework to identify the racial order based on insight from the Irish case. There is a four-stage framework in the book which helps readers understand how migrants navigate the labour market from the point of migration to labour participation. The book also highlights minority agency and how migrants respond to their marginality. The examples of how social acceptance can be applied in managing difference in the workplace are an added bonus for those interested in diversity and inclusion. This book is the first of its kind in Ireland and across Europe to present inequality, racism and discrimination in the labour market from a racial stratification perspective. While this book is based on Irish data, the CRT theoretical approach, as well as its insight into migrant perspectives, poses a strong appeal to scholars of sociology, social justice, politics, intercultural communication and economics with interest in race and ethnicity, critical whiteness and migration. It is a timely contribution to CRT which offers scholars a method to conduct empirical study of racial stratification across different countries bypassing the over-reliance on secondary data. It will also appeal to countries and scholars examining causal racism and how it shapes racial inequality.

Mark Harvey

3 A Note on Profit and Inequality In MEAB, an attempt was made to develop an analysis of the systemic generation of multiple and intersecting inequalities in capitalist political economies, but with one significant and acknowledged gap: the generation and appropriation of profits by capitalist enterprises. In Chapter 1, a discussion of the current debates on inequality highlighted the contrast between Marx’s productionist view of profit and the dominant alternative perspectives of market ‘rents’ (e.g. Stiglitz) and the distributional inheritance of wealth (e

in Inequality and Democratic Egalitarianism
Mark Harvey

book, succeeding only in completing an extended essay before he 2 Inequality and Democratic Egalitarianism died: Marx’s Economy and Beyond, which appears below as the centrepiece of this volume. Norman had never written a co-authored piece, an aspect of his single-mindedness. He also would never countenance any alterations by anyone of any text he had deemed finished: not even a comma to be added or subtracted. So the text of that essay in this book is as he approved. When we met in the early 1960s, we were already both politically committed adherents to a

in Inequality and Democratic Egalitarianism
Mark Harvey and Norman Geras

movement of historical progress in forms that can be defended as increasingly just. 20 Inequality and Democratic Egalitarianism One thing that is not helpful in this context, however, is a blank reassertion of the validity of Marx’s most central economic categories for the analysis of global capitalism. Capital remains a work of fruitful – particular – explanatory hypotheses: hypotheses regarding, for example, the underlying causes of instability and crisis, the tendency towards the concentration of capital, the persistent production and reproduction of unemployment

in Inequality and Democratic Egalitarianism
Politico-economies of Slavery, Indentured Labour and Debt Peonage
Mark Harvey

5 Coercive Capitalisms: Politico-economies of Slavery, Indentured Labour and Debt Peonage This chapter develops the short section appearing in MEAB, and asks the question: why is slavery centrally important for an understanding of capitalist political economies?1 Much attention has been paid to the exploitative nature of capitalism, and the consequently systemic and extreme inequalities of monetary wealth, to which we have added inequalities in rights to public goods and resources. In the analysis so far, these inequalities are seen to be inherently gendered

in Inequality and Democratic Egalitarianism
The challenges of neoliberalisation
Marco Oberti and Edmond Préteceille

16  Marco Oberti and Edmond Préteceille Urban segregation, inequalities and local welfare: the challenges of neoliberalisation The central argument of this chapter is twofold: the transformation of social structures and that of welfare-state regimes have to be considered together; urban inequalities and segregation are crucial in relating these two processes. The first part discusses the relevance of social class analysis in the face of the fragmentation produced by changing work relations, the growth of the service sector, the expansion of the middle classes

in Western capitalism in transition
Jack Holland

modern reality of urban American life; television was the cultural site of exchange for a more-than-Dickensian sociological imagination. 5 The Wire’s exploration of sociological themes is truly exceptional. Indeed, I do not hesitate to say that it has done more to enhance our understandings of the challenges of urban life and urban inequality than any other media event or scholarly publication, including studies by social scientists … The Wire develops morally complex characters on each side of the law, and with its scrupulous exploration of the inner workings of

in Fictional television and American Politics
Ronnie Fay

national Traveller organisations in Ireland, as well as to Traveller policy developments. These organisations include the Irish Traveller Movement, Mincéirs Whiden, the National Traveller Women's Forum, and the Parish of the Travelling People. Alongside a number of these we are members of the European Network against Racism Ireland. Our work is based on two essential premises: (1) Travellers must be involved in the most important decisions that affect their lives, and (2) racism and exclusionary policies of inclusion have been at the root of Traveller inequalities. Pavee

in Immigrants as outsiders in the two Irelands
Mark Harvey

6 The Long Road to Democratic Egalitarianism The idea for this book, shared with Norman Geras, was to go beyond Marx while addressing the fundamental issues of the generation of inequalities in society, and not merely the brute factuality of extreme inequalities but unjust or illegitimate inequalities. Norman had already convincingly argued that Marx’s concept of exploitation was more than an analysis of the production of surplus value by labour and its appropriation by owners of capital. The concept contains its own moral judgement of illegitimacy

in Inequality and Democratic Egalitarianism