Widely regarded as expert in techniques of surveillance and political control, Israel has been successful in controlling a native population for a long time. Despite tremendous challenges, it has maintained a tight grip over a large Palestinian population in the territories it occupied in the 1967 war. Moreover, it has effectively contained the Palestinian minority inside its 1948 borders. This book discusses the foundation of an Israeli discourse about the Palestinian minority, which Israeli leaders called birour or clarification, and the circumstances of its emergence and crystallization. It talks about the policy of constructing the Palestinians both as non-Jews and as an assortment of insular minorities. The fate of this minority was not only an Israeli internal affair but also an issue of concern to the international community. An analysis of the legal and institutional frameworks, and the role of state power in categorizing the Palestinians, follows. The book also analyses the ways state control and surveillance were implemented at the level of the locality. The book highlights the way state educational policy not just fostered the segmentation described earlier but promoted among students and educators. It then takes up the question of political rights and their meaning under the rule of Military Government. It concludes with personal reflections on the thousands of minutes, protocols, reports, plans and personal messages.
Chapter 5 on Kosovo; Baev’s and Christophe’s Chapters 7 and 10, respectively,
on Georgia; Koehler and Zürcher’s Chapter 8 on Azerbaijan, Armenia and
Nagorno-Karabakh; and Kisriev’s Chapter 6 on Chechnya, in this volume).
What accounts for the diﬀerent ways the various post-socialist societies dealt
with the stress of transition? The case studies in this volume look at the institutionalframework of these societies for answers. It is argued here that institutions
Institutions and the organisation of stability and violence
perform three functions
5306ST New Patterns-C/lb.qxd
The politics of environmental policy
Ireland’s environmental policy is largely shaped by a generally low level of
environmental awareness and the dominance of economic priorities on the
national policy agenda. Yet Ireland’s environmental performance is regarded
as relatively strong (EPA, 2005) and illustrates evidence of progress in terms of
policy and institutionalframework (OECD, 2000). In contrast to this are the
increasing pressures to which Ireland’s physical
investigate more closely the problems of measuring implementation effectiveness. As we will see, our evaluations in that respect
are not only dependent on the underlying definition of effective
implementation, but also on the concrete data and information on
which we make our judgements. Before dealing with these questions, however, we briefly present the institutionalframework in
which the implementation of European policies takes place.
In the EU, there is a clear-cut distribution of competence concerning the
leaders pull towards
increased fragmentation within the system, but the institutionalframework
continues to force this into the two-bloc logic. Given consistently rising
levels of abstention among voters turned off by the choice ‘imposed’ by
the current institutionalframework, revisions to this framework are likely
to go beyond the changes in presidential incumbency to date. Commentators continue to talk of the formulation of a Sixth Republic, although
whether this indicates full regime change or simply a substantial amendment of the Fifth Republic is unclear
and comprehensive plans. The existence of these policy guidelines and plans
refutes the dominant consensus in the scholarly literature, as outlined earlier,
regarding the absence of a state policy vis-à-vis the Palestinians.
In chapter 3, I describe and analyse the legal and institutionalframeworks
through which the Palestinians were governed. These were the tools for implementing the policy guidelines and plans. The control processes put into motion
by these frameworks are analysed in relation to two well-theorized forms of
modern political control
crossing of a wide range of organisational and sectoral boundaries.
The LSP, on the other hand, is a formal, government-inspired institutional arrangement that is rule driven and codiﬁed and set within the
broader institutionalframework of the local council. It is also focused on the
bureaucratic processes involved in the provision of services, the coordination of service arrangements and on the processes of community planning.
None of this requires an elected element to work; it does, however, require
an elected element to hold such a body to account. Although an LSP
critical approach to security in the
Asia-Pacific requires not merely a critique of a traditional security
studies concerned with state-based military conflict but an engagement
with an elite practice and discourse of security which is already
broader in its focus but still analytically and normatively flawed.
Below we go on to outline the combination of theoretical, policy and
legislative and institutionalframework that meant that public authorities produced policies, including the provision of public funds, that impacted, over time, on the civic. These policies form part of a broader government policy to create shared space. This was most clearly articulated in 2005 in the Shared Future policy produced by the offices of the First Minister and Deputy First Minister, the twin heads of the executive. The overall aim of A Shared Future is
to establish, over time, a shared society defined by a culture of tolerance: a
not immune from use of terms like ‘frog’, ‘small dark Latin races’ and ‘dago
nations’ in reference to foreign statesmen, League delegates and colleagues in
the International Federation, a reflection of the casual racism of the period.104
All of this points to the cultural dimensions of liberal-internationalist
ideology between the wars. Intellectually, LNU leaders accepted the limited
legal and institutionalframework for the League which emerged out of the
power play at Paris and rejected the visionary blueprints for a World State
propounded by radicals