How inclusive are the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) and the European Union (EU)? The enlargement of both organisations seems to give some substance to the vision of a ‘Europe whole and free’ articulated at the Cold War's end. Yet more recently, enlargement's limits have increasingly come to be recognised, bringing an important debate on the balance to be struck between inclusion and exclusion. This book examines that sometimes awkward balance. Its analytical starting point is the characterisation of much of Europe as a security community managed by a system of security governance. The boundary of this system is neither clear nor fixed, but a dynamic of inclusion and exclusion can be said to exist by reference to its most concrete expression—that of institutional enlargement. On this basis, the book offers an elaboration of the concept of security governance itself, complemented by a historical survey of the Cold War and its end, the post-Cold War development of NATO and the EU, and case studies of two important ‘excluded’ states: Russia and Turkey.
The Cold War security division of Europe premised on bipolarity,
‘overlay’ and regional organisations with relatively
static memberships has been replaced by a process of institutionalenlargement and partnership. This is seen as an inclusive
Europe’s security relations are densely institutionalised.
These institutions have a pan-European quality but the central
in three senses. First within EU/NATO Europe there have been powerful
political messages emanating from political elites relating to the
limits of inclusion. As we shall see in later chapters, these political
preferences are especially clear in debates among existing member states
on the wisdom and scope of institutionalenlargement and/or forms of
association. Surveys of public opinion indicate strong popular