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This book deals with the institutional framework in post-socialist, after-empire spaces. It consists of nine case studies and two contributions of a more theoretical nature. Each of these analytical narratives sheds some light on the micro-politics of organised violence. After 1990, Serbs and Croats were competing over access to the resources needed for institution building and state building. Fear in turn triggered ethnic mobilisation. An 'unprofessional' riot of Serbs in the Krajina region developed into a professional war between Serbs and Croats in Croatia, in which several thousand died and several hundred thousand people were forcefully expelled from their homes. The Herceg-Bosnian style of resistance can be surprisingly effective. It is known that most of the heroin transported along the Balkans route passes through the hands of Albanian mafia groups; that this traffic has taken off since summer 1999. The concept of Staatnation is based on the doctrine according to which each 'nation' must have its own territorial State and each State must consist of one 'nation' only. The slow decline and eventual collapse of the Soviet and the Yugoslav empires was partly triggered, partly accompanied by the quest for national sovereignty. Dagestan is notable for its ethnic diversity and, even by post-Soviet standards, its dramatic economic deprivation. The integrative potential of cooperative movements at the republican, the regional and the inter-state level for the Caucasus is analyzed. The book also offers insights into the economics of ending violence. Finally, it addresses the question of reconciliation after ethnic cleansing.

Implementing international trade norms

This book provides a basic guide to the new World Trade Organization (WTO) code of conduct, and then focuses on the problems and issues arising in relation to its implementation. It considers the institutional aspects of the WTO along with an explanation of the substantive provisions of the WTO code. The establishment of the WTO places the international trading system on a firm constitutional footing. The Marrakesh Agreement establishing the WTO sets out the purposes and objectives of the WTO and its institutional framework. The primary purposes of the WTO are twofold: to ensure the reduction of tariffs and other barriers to trade, and the elimination of discriminatory treatment in international trade relations. The book presents an examination of the GATT 1994, and the various agreements arising from the Uruguay Round Of Multilateral Trade Negotiations. It consists of a general examination of the various techniques employed in order to ensure the implementation of the WTO code. The book presents the theory of the techniques of implementation and explores the various elements of the implementation techniques employed in the WTO code, other than the Trade Policy Review and Dispute Settlement Mechanisms. It focuses on dispute settlement which is an important technique of implementation and comprises an examination of the Trade Policy Review Mechanism. The book focuses on preconditions in the framework of implementation and on the issues and problems of implementation in so far as they relate to developing countries and trade 'blocs'.

Bert Ingelaere

assemblage was guided by a specific contextual element: the legal and institutional framework that came into being following the genocide. The Effectual Truth But the legal and institutional framework was not the only contextual element at work in the gacaca assemblage. A specific code of conduct – expressive form – defined and still defines the nature of social navigation in society. Speech acts did not only correspond to reality in the traditional organisation of Rwandan society. The word was a means to an end, not so much an end in itself. From a Judeo

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Jan Koehler
Christoph Zürcher

-Niediek’s Chapter 5 on Kosovo; Baev’s and Christophe’s Chapters 7 and 10, respectively, on Georgia; Koehler and Zürcher’s Chapter 8 on Azerbaijan, Armenia and Nagorno-Karabakh; and Kisriev’s Chapter 6 on Chechnya, in this volume). Institutions matter What accounts for the different ways the various post-socialist societies dealt with the stress of transition? The case studies in this volume look at the institutional framework of these societies for answers. It is argued here that institutions 246 Institutions and the organisation of stability and violence perform three functions

in Potentials of disorder
Asif H. Qureshi

WTO sets out the purposes and objectives of the WTO and its institutional framework. The primary purposes of the WTO are twofold: to ensure the reduction of tariffs and other barriers to trade, and the elimination of discriminatory treatment in international trade relations. 5 The WTO is to ensure these primary purposes in order to facilitate in the economies of member States

in The World Trade Organization
Abstract only
Asif H. Qureshi

the conflict resolution mechanisms cannot add to or diminish the rights and obligations agreed by the members under the code. 4 The primacy and significance of the institutional framework under the Understanding is reinforced by the edict to members that they are not to make determinations of violations under the WTO code, except through recourse to the mechanisms under the

in The World Trade Organization
Bernadette Connaughton

5306ST New Patterns-C/lb.qxd 3/9/09 16:45 Page 122 7 The politics of environmental policy Bernadette Connaughton Introduction Ireland’s environmental policy is largely shaped by a generally low level of environmental awareness and the dominance of economic priorities on the national policy agenda. Yet Ireland’s environmental performance is regarded as relatively strong (EPA, 2005) and illustrates evidence of progress in terms of policy and institutional framework (OECD, 2000). In contrast to this are the increasing pressures to which Ireland’s physical

in Europeanisation and new patterns of governance in Ireland
Christoph Knill
Duncan Liefferink

investigate more closely the problems of measuring implementation effectiveness. As we will see, our evaluations in that respect are not only dependent on the underlying definition of effective implementation, but also on the concrete data and information on Implementation effectiveness 147 which we make our judgements. Before dealing with these questions, however, we briefly present the institutional framework in which the implementation of European policies takes place. Institutional framework In the EU, there is a clear-cut distribution of competence concerning the

in Environmental politics in the European Union
Open Access (free)
Alistair Cole

leaders pull towards increased fragmentation within the system, but the institutional framework continues to force this into the two-bloc logic. Given consistently rising levels of abstention among voters turned off by the choice ‘imposed’ by the current institutional framework, revisions to this framework are likely to go beyond the changes in presidential incumbency to date. Commentators continue to talk of the formulation of a Sixth Republic, although whether this indicates full regime change or simply a substantial amendment of the Fifth Republic is unclear

in The French party system
Sean W. Burges

table. This chapter will focus on the key questions driving Brazil’s engagement with the South. Attention will first be turned to the dependency analysis underpinning the Southern agenda. In the next section institutional frameworks and the rise of development cooperation provision policy will be taken up as strategies that Brazil is using in an attempt to manage engagement with the South. Finally, attention will be turned to highlighting the inherent contradictions that come from the competing ambitions and lack of homogeneity across the South to suggest there is

in Brazil in the world