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An Introductory Text and Translation (Halit Refiğ, 1971)
Murat Akser
Didem Durak-Akser

Halit Refiğ had impact on debates around Turkish national cinema both as a thinker and as a practitioner. Instrumental in establishing the Turkish Film Institute under MSU along with his director colleagues like Metin Erksan and Lutfi Akad, Refiğ lectured for many years at the first cinema training department. This translation is from his 1971 collection of articles titled Ulusal Sinema Kavgasi (Fight For National Cinema). Here Refiğ elaborates on the concept of national cinema from cultural perspectives framing Turkey as a continuation of Ottoman Empire and its culture distinct and different from western ideas of capitalism, bourgeoisie art and Marxism. For Refiğ, Turkish cinema should be reflected as an extension of traditional Turkish arts. Refiğ explores the potential to form a national cinema through dialogue,and dialectic within Turkish traditional arts and against western cinematic traditions of representation.

Film Studies
James Baldwin and Ray Charles in “The Hallelujah Chorus”
Ed Pavlić

Based on a recent, archival discovery of the script, “But Amen is the Price” is the first substantive writing about James Baldwin’s collaboration with Ray Charles, Cicely Tyson, and others in a performance of musical and dramatic pieces. Titled by Baldwin, “The Hallelujah Chorus” was performed in two shows at Carnegie Hall in New York City on 1 July 1973. The essay explores how the script and presentation of the material, at least in Baldwin’s mind, represented a call for people to more fully involve themselves in their own and in each other’s lives. In lyrical interludes and dramatic excerpts from his classic work, “Sonny’s Blues,” Baldwin addressed divisions between neighbors, brothers, and strangers, as well as people’s dissociations from themselves in contemporary American life. In solo and ensemble songs, both instrumental and vocal, Ray Charles’s music evinced an alternative to the tradition of Americans’ evasion of each other. Charles’s sound meant to signify the history and possibility of people’s attainment of presence in intimate, social, and political venues of experience. After situating the performance in Baldwin’s personal life and public worldview at the time and detailing the structure and content of the performance itself, “But Amen is the Price” discusses the largely negative critical response as a symptom faced by much of Baldwin’s other work during the era, responses that attempted to guard “aesthetics” generally—be they literary, dramatic, or musical—as class-blind, race-neutral, and apolitical. The essay presents “The Hallelujah Chorus” as a key moment in Baldwin’s search for a musical/literary form, a way to address, as he put it, “the person and the people,” in open contention with the social and political pressures of the time.

James Baldwin Review
Visual Advocacy in the Early Decades of Humanitarian Cinema
Valérie Gorin

mainly focus on the exhibition of death and inflicted violence, sometimes with a depiction of the oppressor. They are extreme and more commonly used in human rights investigations. However, atrocity images are not the same as about-to-die images ( Zelizer, 2010 ). The latter were present in many humanitarian films and were instrumental in forging incentives to care and overcome indifference. Many scenes fostered an emergency impulse: an elderly person with all apparent physical signs of starvation (skeleton-like appearance and swelling joints), refugees in ragged

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Lewis Hine’s Photographs of Refugees for the American Red Cross, 1918–20
Sonya de Laat

( Gutman, 1967 : 14). Hine’s skills would prove invaluable for shining light on civilians’ wartime need; they were equally instrumental in making the ARC shine as American’s preeminent relief agency. It was the Great War that created stateless persons, making stark the emerging reality that rights were not inhered in the person, as has been the central tenet of European philosophy since the time of the French Revolution. Rights were increasingly tied to citizenship ( Ngai, 2004 ; see also Hunt, 2007 ). For many in today’s world it is difficult to imagine anything

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
An Interview with Celso Amorim, Former Brazilian Foreign Minister
Juliano Fiori

sought to give our presence a more humanitarian character, for it not to be exclusively military. Some people even spoke of it as a different type of peace operation. But, sure, it wasn’t perfect. There were errors, too. JF: A last question. During the first decade of the twenty-first century, Brazil became a protagonist in multilateral negotiations, pushing for changes at the WTO, reform of the UN Security Council. It was instrumental in the formation of new negotiating blocs: the G20, G3, G4, the BRICS. It didn’t just take positions on matters

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Amanda Alencar
Julia Camargo

). Boudreau , J-A. ( 2007 ), ‘ Making New Political Spaces: Mobilizing Spatial Imaginaries, Instrumentalizing Spatial Practices, and Strategically Using Spatial Tools ’, Environment and Planning A: Economy and Space , 39 : 11 , 2593 – 611 , doi: 10.1068/a39228 . Casswell , J

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Corporations, Celebrities and the Construction of the Entrepreneurial Refugee Woman
Annika Bergman Rosamond
Catia Gregoratti

the JRF through donor funding. IKEA does not introduce a completely new scheme of improvement, but rather taps on the development work of a local organisation in order to scale it and make it more profitable ( Li, 2007 ). An external assessment of the partnership describes it as aligned with the Jordan Compact’s commitments and as an instrumental ‘win–win’ proposition: ‘For profit-seeking companies whose CSR [corporate social responsibility

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Resilience and the Language of Compassion
Diego I. Meza

of performance that produces exemplary dispositions of emotion and action on distant others for publics to identify with’ ( Chouliaraki, 2012 : 3). Instrumental in this pedagogical practice of new humanitarianism are the discourses of civil servants, politicians and celebrities, used not only to embody the humanity of the institutions that they represent, but also to codify the suffering of people into neoliberal categories ( Sözer, 2019 : 15). Contemporary humanitarianism does, however, aim to alleviate the suffering of the vulnerable and increase their

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
The Politics of Information and Analysis in Food Security Crises
Daniel Maxwell
Peter Hailey

. Howe , P. and Devereux , S. ( 2007 ), ‘ Famine scales: Towards an Instrumental Definition of “famine” ’, in S. Devereux (ed.), The New Famines: Why Famines Persist in an Era of Globalization ( London : Routledge ), pp. 27 – 49

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Humanitarianism in a Post-Liberal World Order
Stephen Hopgood

kind, yet this is everyday reality for billions of people. One function of the entire humanitarian enterprise might be to obscure root causes and allow those who, en masse, might be able to bring pressure to bear to relieve suffering (mobilised citizens in the West) to think that something is being done so they need not act nor feel guilty. Donations are given instrumentally, to prevent migration, and as the wages of sin, a palliative for guilt and shame. Humanitarian actions might help prevent armies of the dispossessed from flooding the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs