Unlike Romantic authorship, the Gothic author has long been identified with unoriginality. A foundational moment in this association can be found in the reception of the original Gothic plagiarist, Matthew Lewis. Critics not only condemned Lewis for apparently usurping other authors property in The Castle Spectre but also did so by casting him as his own usurping villain. This parallel between Gothic conventions and critical language suggests that the Gothic might have played a crucial role in the history of our concepts of intellectual property, and particularly in the development of the now-familiar figure of the criminalized, and vilified, plagiarist.
Matthew Hunt, Sharon O’Brien, Patrick Cadwell and Dónal P. O’Mathúna
in the humanitarian sector. A
tendency exists to look for in-house solutions ( Hestbaek, 2017 ). Sharing some information can raise
concerns about security and privacy. Open-access maps could be misused, for
example, to oppress or target protesters in politically unstable situations.
Innovations developed collaboratively with for-profit companies also raise
questions related to proprietary knowledge, intellectualproperty and conflicts
data scientists, tech entrepreneurs and experts in cybersecurity, intellectualproperty and data-protection law) with differing priorities, values and skillsets,
and consequently different approaches to datafication. In the context of fashion,
Wissinger (2018: 779) notes that her
interviews reveal that ‘a laissez-faire culture is the environment in which
wearable biotech is being developed and will be deployed’. She suggests that
The ‘natural cases’ of the campaigns for Falun Gong and IPR protection
, the same unwavering mobilization has fuelled, not weakened, China’s resolve on the issue. Still, Falun Gong
Strengthening China’s anti-piracy regime
Compared to Falun Gong, the campaign to improve IPRs in China has been
a roaring success. Now a virtual fixture of China’s commercial landscape,
56 The advocacy trap
the foreign governments, free trade advocates, and business associations that
comprise the network have not merely been privy to discussions about intellectualproperty protections, but partners in the development of a comprehensive
wanted to be part of the biggest game in town.
In September 1986, in Punta del Este, Uruguay, GATT ministers settled on
an ambitious agenda of reforms, which they believed would benefit rich and
poor nations alike. Developing countries wanted rules that would open up markets in Japan, Europe and the US for their agriculture and other products like
textiles, where they held a competitive advantage. Developed countries wanted
access to new markets for their manufactured goods and, as negotiations progressed, they added services and intellectualproperty to the agenda.
accumulation of individual assets.31 But the all-important
bourgeois ideal of ownership did not only define who could determine the
composition of the Congress of Deputies and the Senate, it also shaped the
figure of the modern author in Western society.32 The very concept of intellectualproperty, which was legally established in Spain in 1847, empowered
women writers such as Sáez to participate in the market of literary culture as
officially recognized owners/authors of literary works.33
In this context, it is important to remember that married women in Castile
heavily contingent on the issue in question. Local experimentation with the
legalization of Falun Gong is a pipe dream, for example, though the creation
of specialized local courts to handle intellectualproperty theft may not be.
Moreover, it is not a given that greater fragmentation of authority automatically leads to increased access. Indeed, in the case of the Falun Gong,
the opposite was true. Branches of the 6–10 Office were created specially
to curtail and police activism at the local and regional levels. The handful of
genuine abolitionists scattered
The tale of transnational advocacy networks (TANs) is typically one of non-state actors reshaping world politics through the power of persuasion and principled ideas. This book is about the unromantic and often uncomfortable realities of transnational advocacy in a strong authoritarian state and rising world power. Drawing together case studies that span a range of issues, repertoires, and results of advocacy, it elaborates the constitutive role of the state in contemporary transnational activism. Because transnational networks are significant globally and domestically, the book speaks to students of comparative and international politics, bridging what is treated here as a superficial divide between the sub-fields. It discusses the campaigns around justice for Falun Gong and the strengthening of intellectual property rights in China. The book then traces the campaign around HIV/AIDS treatment, and the effort to abolish capital punishment in China. In the campaign for Tibetan independence, Chinese intransigence on the matter of national sovereignty for Tibet produced a split within the TAN. The book argues that that TANs can be effective when a legitimacy-seeking state deems the adoption of new policy positions in a given issue area to be critical for the preservation of its own moral authority and power monopoly. The key to working more effectively in China, therefore, is to recognize the source of Chinese Communist Party legitimacy and the connectedness of an issue to it. Those wishing to approach China recognize and take seriously the Chinese power to shape global issues and campaigns in support of them.
Intercessory advocacy and causal process in the HIV/ AIDS treatment and death penalty abolitionist campaigns
The 'critical' causal pattern demonstrated by the intellectual property rights (IPR) and Falun Gong campaigns is only one of many functional forms taken by transnational advocacy network (TAN) campaigns in China. This chapter explores another pathway, that of intercessory advocacy for qualitative changes in the content or implementation of policies already decided upon. The campaigns explored are those concerning the development of China's HIV/AIDS treatment regime and abolition of its death penalty. The campaign around HIV/AIDS treatment did succeed in pushing the state towards evidence-based treatment and prevention measures. While the death penalty persists in China despite the efforts of the abolitionist campaign, there is coincident reduction in the raw numbers of executions carried out in recent years. Transnational HIV/AIDS activists have clearly had an influence on the development of China's treatment regime, and, undoubtedly, have contributed to improvements in the lives of China's HIV sufferers.
In this broad sweep, Mayo explores dominant European discourses of higher education, in the contexts of different globalisations and neoliberalism, and examines its extension to a specific region. It explores alternatives in thinking and practice including those at the grassroots, also providing a situationally grounded project of university–community engagement. Signposts for further directions for higher education lifelong learning, with a social justice purpose, are provided.