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Martin Thomas

civil war. The disappointments of inter-war reform If the memories of the imperial contribution to the previous war were largely positive, the inter-war empire produced few innovations to inspire liberal French imperialists. Marred by major revolts in Morocco, Syria and Indo-China, and punctuated by growing nationalist unrest across the

in The French empire at war 1940–45
Imperialism, Politics and Society
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In the twenty years between the end of the First World War and the start of the Second, the French empire reached its greatest physical extent. At the end of the First World War, the priority of the French political community was to consolidate and expand the French empire for, inter alia, industrial mobilisation and global competition for strategic resources. The book revisits debates over 'associationism' and 'assimilationism' in French colonial administration in Morocco and Indochina, and discusses the Jonnart Law in Algeria and the role of tribal elites in the West African colonies. On the economy front, the empire was tied to France's monetary system, and most colonies were reliant on the French market. The book highlights three generic socio-economic issues that affected all strata of colonial society: taxation and labour supply, and urban development with regard to North Africa. Women in the inter-war empire were systematically marginalised, and gender was as important as colour and creed in determining the educational opportunities open to children in the empire. With imperialist geographical societies and missionary groups promoting France's colonial connection, cinema films and the popular press brought popular imperialism into the mass media age. The book discusses the four rebellions that shook the French empire during the inter-war years: the Rif War of Morocco, the Syrian revolt, the Yen Bay mutiny in Indochina, and the Kongo Wara. It also traces the origins of decolonisation in the rise of colonial nationalism and anti-colonial movements.

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France’s inter-war empire: a framework for analysis
Martin Thomas

less spectacular, problems of administrative practice, fiscal policy, commercial integration, urban planning and social provision were the stuff of colonial governance. These posed more testing challenges than military occupation. Yet the inter-war empire was neither pacified nor secure. Colonial domination faced unprecedented challenges from within and without – from marginalised and exploited colonial peoples

in The French empire between the wars
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Prelude to decolonisation? The inter-war empire revisited
Martin Thomas

By 1939 France was a declining European power in crisis, with an unmanageable colonial empire. But so it was in 1920. What, if anything, changed in the intervening twenty years? Is ‘the inter-war empire’ of any use as an analytical tool, or is it merely a historical construct and nothing more? The histories of the colonial system, and of its individual components between

in The French empire between the wars
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Empire migration and imperial harmony
Stephen Constantine

official history, U. B. Monk, New Horizons: a Hundred Years of Women’s Migration , 1963, rich in information, but short in interpretation. W. K. Hancock, in his magisterial Survey of British Commonwealth Affairs , 1940, was predictably the first to place inter-war Empire migration into a wider political and economic context, albeit briefly. That approach is also attempted in S. Wertimer’s unpublished

in Emigrants and empire
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Gordon Pirie

from Karachi), Indian villagers shook their fists as the aircraft made buffalo stampede, and passengers fed ham sandwiches to crocodiles in Udaipur’s sacred lake. 8 Inter-war Empire aviation has also been the subject of purely fictional treatment. Here, flight is a scene-setting device rather than the subject. Imperial 109 (1978) is a thriller set

in Cultures and caricatures of British imperial aviation
The politics of Empire settlement, 1900–1922
Keith Williams

to extend the state’s commitment to Empire settlement, finally securing Treasury and Cabinet approval for the introduction of an Empire Settlement Bill which promised a dramatic new era of imperial co-operation in migration policy in the simplest of legislative formulations. The inter-war Empire settlement programme, explored in detail by the other essays in this volume, was perhaps the most far

in Emigrants and empire
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Gordon Pirie

: ‘clerks did sit on tall stools to pore over ledgers. They did tuck their pens behind their ears … And discipline was strict. If two shillings were unaccounted for there was an inquest’. 19 The nerve-centre of Britain’s inter-war Empire airline was a coterie of powerful men who operated a close-knit, fusty organisation according to their own time-warped and idiosyncratic practices. There could be little room

in Air empire
Gordon Pirie

record is in obscure British monthly intelligence reports from the Persian Gulf, but no Empire-wide view emerges from these regionally specific notices. They do at least share the authentic aura of official numerical tabulations, but inconsistency and overlooked detail are a limitation. Albeit incomplete, other qualitative information about inter-war Empire air travellers is rich

in Cultures and caricatures of British imperial aviation
Edna Bradlow

-sponsored immigration was a function of the hostility between the two white communities; virtually from the time of Union the voting strength of the Afrikaners effectively vetoed any such policy. This struggle for power within the white electorate accordingly frustrated the Imperial government’s inter-war Empire settlement plan. Put another way, imperial considerations played a minimal role in influencing South African

in Emigrants and empire