International organisations are a central component of modern international society. This book provides a concise account of the principles and norms of international law applicable to the intergovernmental organisation (IGO). It defines and explains inter-governmentalism and the role of law in its regulation. The book presents case studies that show how the law works within an institutional order dominated by politics. After a note on the key relationship between the IGO and its member states, it examines the basic relationship between the UN and states in terms of membership through admissions, withdrawal, expulsion, suspension, and representation. The debate about the extent of the doctrine of legal powers is addressed through case studies. Institutional lawmaking in the modern era is discussed with particular focus on at the impact of General Assembly Resolutions on outer space and the Health Regulations of the World Health Organization. Non-forcible measures adopted by the UN and similar IGOs in terms of their legality (constitutionality and conformity to international law), legitimacy and effectiveness, is covered next. The different military responses undertaken by IGOs, ranging from observation and peacekeeping, to peace enforcement and war-fighting, are discussed in terms of legality and practice. The book also considers the idea of a Responsibility to Protect and the development of secondary rules of international law to cover the wrongful acts and omissions of IGOs. It ends with a note on how the primary and secondary rules of international law are upheld in different forms and mechanisms of accountability, including courts.
agencies, INGOs and intergovernmentalorganisations. For a famine to be declared, a
region needs to surpass three thresholds: 2 deaths per 10,000 people per day (crude
death rate), 30 per cent of children are acutely malnourished and 20 per cent of
households with extreme food gaps ( IPC Global
Partners, 2019 : 9). If the region falls into the category of
‘famine’, the IPC system stresses the need for ‘immediate
action’ from the international community ( IPC Global
Corporations, Celebrities and the Construction of the Entrepreneurial
Annika Bergman Rosamond and Catia Gregoratti
broadly conceptualised ‘as the increasingly organized and internationalized
attempt to save the lives, enhance the welfare, and reduce the suffering of the
world’s most vulnerable populations’ ( Barnett, 2013 : 379).
Who (mis)represents women, and who besides states and intergovernmentalorganisations
diagnoses deficiencies in a population and proposes schemes of improvement, are open
empirical questions ( Marchand and Parpart,
1995 ; Li, 2007 ; Barnett, 2013
Marie-Luce Desgrandchamps, Lasse Heerten, Arua Oko Omaka, Kevin O'Sullivan, and Bertrand Taithe
unavailable for the Biafrans, perceived not as a self-determination campaign, but as
a secessionist threat: the opponent that was accepted as a sovereign nation-state in
intergovernmentalorganisations was Nigeria. This was the OAU [Organisation of
African Unity] stance that determined the position of the UN and the wider
diplomatic world, in which Biafra’s campaign could not thrive, even though
the rhetoric of the campaign itself was so similar to decolonisation
This book shows how environmentalists have shaped the world's largest multilateral development lender, investment financier and political risk insurer to take up sustainable development. It challenges an emerging consensus over international organisational change to argue that international organisations (IOs) are influenced by their social structure and may change their practices to reflect previously antithetical norms such as sustainable development. The text locates sources of organisational change with environmentalists, thus demonstrating the ways in which non-state actors can effect change within large intergovernmental organisations through socialisation. It combines an account of international organisational change with detailed empirical evidence of change in one issue area across three institutions.
Taking the role of non-governmental organisations in customary international lawmaking seriously
As States and intergovernmentalorganisations (IGO) face a range of new challenges, non-governmental organisations are playing an increasingly important role in global governance. 1 Non-governmental organisations have led the development of a range of international treaties, triggered the domestication of international norms in a host of states, and documented abusive State and non-State actor practices in the most perilous environments. Non-governmental organisations are commonly referred to as norm entrepreneurs, but a substantial number of actors consider
from finances received for the implementation of specific projects from the UN agencies, the regional intergovernmentalorganisations such as the European Civil Protection and Humanitarian Aid Operations (ECHO) and national governments. 23 In the by now complex global network through which international relief moves, the NGOs as a whole have reached the point where they ‘form the backbone of the delivery mechanism’ 24 and are in the front line of work in the field.
Finally, according to much of the literature, the chief promoters of humanitarian action are
In this broad sweep, Mayo explores dominant European discourses of higher education, in the contexts of different globalisations and neoliberalism, and examines its extension to a specific region. It explores alternatives in thinking and practice including those at the grassroots, also providing a situationally grounded project of university–community engagement. Signposts for further directions for higher education lifelong learning, with a social justice purpose, are provided.
Socialisation and the domestic reception of international norms
exclusive, highlight the different approaches and concerns animating the two
discourses. The work of the diffusion scholars, especially that of Simmons and
her collaborators, tends not to view the international arena as a particularly social
place and focuses on states and/or intergovernmentalorganisations (IOs) as the
key actors of policy diffusion (Holzinger, Knill and Sommerer, 2008; Simmons,
Dobbins and Garrett, 2008). Like many scholars influenced by the rational choice
approach their work often begins from the starting point of (state) interests and
sense. The European Community Administration and Parliament, and a large
array of EU development programmes, are relevant to academics as well as economists. Unlike the OECD, another intergovernmentalorganisation (IGO) wielding
influence in the work addressed by the book, the EU spends more than a third
of its budget on economic and sometimes socially oriented applied research and
development (R&D) programmes.
European thought has hitherto dominated most learning region discourse,
especially through the organs of the EU, with its Committee for Regions, and of