International organisations are a central component of modern international society. This book provides a concise account of the principles and norms of international law applicable to the intergovernmental organisation (IGO). It defines and explains inter-governmentalism and the role of law in its regulation. The book presents case studies that show how the law works within an institutional order dominated by politics. After a note on the key relationship between the IGO and its member states, it examines the basic relationship between the UN and states in terms of membership through admissions, withdrawal, expulsion, suspension, and representation. The debate about the extent of the doctrine of legal powers is addressed through case studies. Institutional lawmaking in the modern era is discussed with particular focus on at the impact of General Assembly Resolutions on outer space and the Health Regulations of the World Health Organization. Non-forcible measures adopted by the UN and similar IGOs in terms of their legality (constitutionality and conformity to international law), legitimacy and effectiveness, is covered next. The different military responses undertaken by IGOs, ranging from observation and peacekeeping, to peace enforcement and war-fighting, are discussed in terms of legality and practice. The book also considers the idea of a Responsibility to Protect and the development of secondary rules of international law to cover the wrongful acts and omissions of IGOs. It ends with a note on how the primary and secondary rules of international law are upheld in different forms and mechanisms of accountability, including courts.
This book shows how environmentalists have shaped the world's largest multilateral development lender, investment financier and political risk insurer to take up sustainable development. It challenges an emerging consensus over international organisational change to argue that international organisations (IOs) are influenced by their social structure and may change their practices to reflect previously antithetical norms such as sustainable development. The text locates sources of organisational change with environmentalists, thus demonstrating the ways in which non-state actors can effect change within large intergovernmental organisations through socialisation. It combines an account of international organisational change with detailed empirical evidence of change in one issue area across three institutions.
from finances received for the implementation of specific projects from the UN agencies, the regional intergovernmentalorganisations such as the European Civil Protection and Humanitarian Aid Operations (ECHO) and national governments. 23 In the by now complex global network through which international relief moves, the NGOs as a whole have reached the point where they ‘form the backbone of the delivery mechanism’ 24 and are in the front line of work in the field.
Finally, according to much of the literature, the chief promoters of humanitarian action are
In this broad sweep, Mayo explores dominant European discourses of higher education, in the contexts of different globalisations and neoliberalism, and examines its extension to a specific region. It explores alternatives in thinking and practice including those at the grassroots, also providing a situationally grounded project of university–community engagement. Signposts for further directions for higher education lifelong learning, with a social justice purpose, are provided.
Socialisation and the domestic reception of international norms
exclusive, highlight the different approaches and concerns animating the two
discourses. The work of the diffusion scholars, especially that of Simmons and
her collaborators, tends not to view the international arena as a particularly social
place and focuses on states and/or intergovernmentalorganisations (IOs) as the
key actors of policy diffusion (Holzinger, Knill and Sommerer, 2008; Simmons,
Dobbins and Garrett, 2008). Like many scholars influenced by the rational choice
approach their work often begins from the starting point of (state) interests and
sense. The European Community Administration and Parliament, and a large
array of EU development programmes, are relevant to academics as well as economists. Unlike the OECD, another intergovernmentalorganisation (IGO) wielding
influence in the work addressed by the book, the EU spends more than a third
of its budget on economic and sometimes socially oriented applied research and
development (R&D) programmes.
European thought has hitherto dominated most learning region discourse,
especially through the organs of the EU, with its Committee for Regions, and of
International Monetary Fund
and the World Bank. By contrast, France sought innovative European
solutions to co-existence with Germany. The enthusiasm for such solutions,
expressed from various quarters at the Congress of Europe in May 1948,
ran into the difficulty that British participation in such bodies seemed
inevitably to steer them towards traditional intergovernmentalorganisations,
where the nation state remained key. That much became clear with the resultant emergence of the Council of Europe, whose statute was agreed in London
The French response to the
coordination of internal bureaucracies are not exclusive to EU foreign
policy. Even the most centralised governments in the world are unable or
unwilling to solve these problems (Allison and Zelikow, 1999 ). The same can be said of other
intergovernmentalorganisations. For instance, problems of coherence
among different UN actors and agencies led to significant changes,
towards a more ‘integrative’ approach, in the way the UN
Jarle Trondal, Martin Marcussen, Torbjörn Larsson and Frode Veggeland
principle is conducive to the emergence of an intergovernmental dynamic among the staff. The national connection is upheld under
the quota principle, securing a staff loyal to the domestic constituency.
Intergovernmentalorganisations typically employ the quota principle and
different systems of secondment in order to uphold the geographical
balances of posts and territorially loyal delegates, such as in the NATO
and the UN Secretariats (Bennett and Oliver 2002: 413; Mouritzen 1990;
Reymond and Mailick 1986).
Studying officials in international bureaucracies sometimes
relative global insignificance, with Vietnam showing commitment to the
intergovernmentalorganisation since its accession in 1995. On the other
hand, Germany has always been a linchpin of European integration, due to
post-war peacemaking, but its pro-European discourse has come under attack
since German unification.
Chapter 3 looks at how nation-building
in unified Germany and Vietnam set about overcoming decades of division by