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Author: Nigel D. White

International organisations are a central component of modern international society. This book provides a concise account of the principles and norms of international law applicable to the intergovernmental organisation (IGO). It defines and explains inter-governmentalism and the role of law in its regulation. The book presents case studies that show how the law works within an institutional order dominated by politics. After a note on the key relationship between the IGO and its member states, it examines the basic relationship between the UN and states in terms of membership through admissions, withdrawal, expulsion, suspension, and representation. The debate about the extent of the doctrine of legal powers is addressed through case studies. Institutional lawmaking in the modern era is discussed with particular focus on at the impact of General Assembly Resolutions on outer space and the Health Regulations of the World Health Organization. Non-forcible measures adopted by the UN and similar IGOs in terms of their legality (constitutionality and conformity to international law), legitimacy and effectiveness, is covered next. The different military responses undertaken by IGOs, ranging from observation and peacekeeping, to peace enforcement and war-fighting, are discussed in terms of legality and practice. The book also considers the idea of a Responsibility to Protect and the development of secondary rules of international law to cover the wrongful acts and omissions of IGOs. It ends with a note on how the primary and secondary rules of international law are upheld in different forms and mechanisms of accountability, including courts.

Changing international organisation identities
Author: Susan Park

This book shows how environmentalists have shaped the world's largest multilateral development lender, investment financier and political risk insurer to take up sustainable development. It challenges an emerging consensus over international organisational change to argue that international organisations (IOs) are influenced by their social structure and may change their practices to reflect previously antithetical norms such as sustainable development. The text locates sources of organisational change with environmentalists, thus demonstrating the ways in which non-state actors can effect change within large intergovernmental organisations through socialisation. It combines an account of international organisational change with detailed empirical evidence of change in one issue area across three institutions.

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A ‘new humanitarianism’?
Silvia Salvatici

from finances received for the implementation of specific projects from the UN agencies, the regional intergovernmental organisations such as the European Civil Protection and Humanitarian Aid Operations (ECHO) and national governments. 23 In the by now complex global network through which international relief moves, the NGOs as a whole have reached the point where they ‘form the backbone of the delivery mechanism’ 24 and are in the front line of work in the field. Finally, according to much of the literature, the chief promoters of humanitarian action are

in A history of humanitarianism, 1755–1989
Community engagement and lifelong learning
Author: Peter Mayo

In this broad sweep, Mayo explores dominant European discourses of higher education, in the contexts of different globalisations and neoliberalism, and examines its extension to a specific region. It explores alternatives in thinking and practice including those at the grassroots, also providing a situationally grounded project of university–community engagement. Signposts for further directions for higher education lifelong learning, with a social justice purpose, are provided.

Socialisation and the domestic reception of international norms
Kelly Kollman

exclusive, highlight the different approaches and concerns animating the two discourses. The work of the diffusion scholars, especially that of Simmons and her collaborators, tends not to view the international arena as a particularly social place and focuses on states and/or intergovernmental organisations (IOs) as the key actors of policy diffusion (Holzinger, Knill and Sommerer, 2008; Simmons, Dobbins and Garrett, 2008). Like many scholars influenced by the rational choice approach their work often begins from the starting point of (state) interests and asks why

in The same-sex unions revolution in western democracies
Chris Duke, Michael Osborne and Bruce Wilson

cultural sense. The European Community Administration and Parliament, and a large array of EU development programmes, are relevant to academics as well as economists. Unlike the OECD, another intergovernmental organisation (IGO) wielding influence in the work addressed by the book, the EU spends more than a third of its budget on economic and sometimes socially oriented applied research and development (R&D) programmes. European thought has hitherto dominated most learning region discourse, especially through the organs of the EU, with its Committee for Regions, and of

in A new imperative
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Simon Bulmer and Martin Burch

International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. By contrast, France sought innovative European solutions to co-existence with Germany. The enthusiasm for such solutions, expressed from various quarters at the Congress of Europe in May 1948, ran into the difficulty that British participation in such bodies seemed inevitably to steer them towards traditional intergovernmental organisations, where the nation state remained key. That much became clear with the resultant emergence of the Council of Europe, whose statute was agreed in London in 1949. The French response to the

in The Europeanisation of Whitehall
Ana E. Juncos

coordination of internal bureaucracies are not exclusive to EU foreign policy. Even the most centralised governments in the world are unable or unwilling to solve these problems (Allison and Zelikow, 1999 ). The same can be said of other intergovernmental organisations. For instance, problems of coherence among different UN actors and agencies led to significant changes, towards a more ‘integrative’ approach, in the way the UN

in EU Foreign and Security Policy in Bosnia
Jarle Trondal, Martin Marcussen, Torbjörn Larsson and Frode Veggeland

principle is conducive to the emergence of an intergovernmental dynamic among the staff. The national connection is upheld under the quota principle, securing a staff loyal to the domestic constituency. Intergovernmental organisations typically employ the quota principle and different systems of secondment in order to uphold the geographical balances of posts and territorially loyal delegates, such as in the NATO and the UN Secretariats (Bennett and Oliver 2002: 413; Mouritzen 1990; Reymond and Mailick 1986). Studying officials in international bureaucracies sometimes

in Unpacking international organisations
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Claire Sutherland

relative global insignificance, with Vietnam showing commitment to the intergovernmental organisation since its accession in 1995. On the other hand, Germany has always been a linchpin of European integration, due to post-war peacemaking, but its pro-European discourse has come under attack since German unification. Chapter 3 looks at how nation-building in unified Germany and Vietnam set about overcoming decades of division by

in Soldered states