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10  Enrico Pugliese International migrations and the Mediterranean Introduction: the Mediterranean migration scene and its evolution In recent decades the Mediterranean has witnessed an expansion of the migration routes and exchanges taking place within its shores and a parallel modification of the actors involved, of the areas where the most relevant processes occur, and of the economic, political and military drivers that activate the movements and determine the direction of travel. Within this frame migrations are at the same time the effects of events that

in Western capitalism in transition
The British case, 1750–1900

Very large numbers of people began to depart the British Isles for the New Worlds after about 1770. This was a pioneering movement, a rehearsal for modern international migration. This book contends that emigration history is not seamless, that it contains large shifts over time and place, and that the modern scale and velocity of mobility have very particular historical roots. The Isle of Man is an ideal starting point in the quest for the engines and mechanisms of emigration, and a particular version of the widespread surge in British emigration in the 1820s. West Sussex was much closer to the centres of the expansionary economy in the new age. North America was the earliest and the greatest theatre of oceanic emigration in which the methods of mass migration were pioneered. Landlocked Shropshire experienced some of the earliest phases of British industrialisation, notably in the Ironbridge/Coalbrookdale district, deep inland on the River Severn. The turmoil in the agrarian and demographic foundations of life reached across the British archipelago. In West Cork and North Tipperary, there was clear evidence of the great structural changes that shook the foundations of these rural societies. The book also discusses the sequences and effects of migration in Wales, Swaledale, Cornwall, Kent, London, and Scottish Highlands. It also deals with Ireland's place in the more generic context of the origins of migration from the British Isles. The common historical understanding is that the pre-industrial population of the British Isles had been held back by Malthusian checks.

Britain’s emergent rights regime

reform and the management of international migration have been described by David Cameron as ‘two sides of the same coin’ (Cameron 2011). In practice, heightened conditions and sanctions for the benefit-dependent domestic population, both in and out of work, have been harnessed by claims of promoting labour market change and reducing demand for low-skilled migrant workers, often EU citizens, whose own access to benefit is being curtailed. Policy in both areas has engaged a moral message of earned entitlement, and as implied in Mingione’s chapter in this volume, this

in Western capitalism in transition

16 British emigration and the Malthus model Spanning the transition The life of Robert Malthus (1766–1834) spanned the decades in Britain of the rapid transition towards mass international migration. This became manifest only towards the end of his life. He was keenly aware of the extraordinary reproductive feats of the American colonists and the potential of new lands in the colonies. He was also well-informed about the substantial migrations from particular regions of the British Isles at the end of the old century. But Malthus was not much engaged with the

in The genesis of international mass migration
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second is sport. As a cultural practice, sport can help to construct a shared identity at a range of scales, but it can also be exclusionary. The particular focus of this section is the GAA, a sporting body that was established in Ireland in 1884 but that is now organised internationally. The GAA provides a means to investigate the ways in which sport as a cultural production links place and identity with both internal and international migration. The third focus is cultural representations, specifically music and fiction. Migration results in new forms of musical

in Ireland and migration in the twenty-first century
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14 The Irish case Ireland to the fore The first crescendo of mass international migration came in the mid-1840s and was disproportionately Irish. Ireland exhibited in the starkest terms the fundamental forces which generated exoduses out of Europe, and therefore Ireland requires particular attention. Moreover by the middle of the nineteenth century, Ireland had become a prolific supplier of emigrants to the New Worlds and to the rest of Britain, and remained so for the next half century. It yielded far more emigrants per capita than the other parts of the

in The genesis of international mass migration
Refugee women in Britain and France

Allwood 02 24/2/10 2 10:27 Page 49 Migration contexts, demographic and social characteristics: refugee women in Britain and France This chapter introduces the reader to the landscape of international migration within which female refugee migrants are positioned. Its aim is twofold. First, it gives an overview of inward migration flows into Britain and France while bearing in mind both the general European context and processes of feminisation which have occurred over the last 50 years. Second, it presents, as fully as available data allows, the demographic

in Refugee women in Britain and France
Global processes, local challenges

This book is a tribute to Enzo Mingione and his contribution to the fields of sociology and urban studies on the occasion of his retirement. It touches upon the processes of transformation of cities to the informal economy, from the Fordist crisis to the rediscovery of poverty, from the welfare state and welfare policies to migration and the transformation of work. These themes constitute the analytical building blocks of this book on the transitions that Western capitalist societies are undergoing. The book focuses on social foundations of Western capitalism, explaining how socio-economic and institutional complementarities that characterised postwar capitalism created relatively integrated socio-economic regimes, It has five thematic sections reflecting five areas of capitalism, the search interests of Enzo Mingione. The first discusses the transformations of global capitalism, addressing how capitalism works and how it changes. The second provides insights into the mechanisms of re-embedding, in particular how welfare policies are part of a societal reaction to capitalism's disruptive dynamic. The third addresses some main challenges that citizenship systems established in the post-war period have had to face, from the spread of new employment regimes to new migratory flows. The fourth addresses cities and their transformation and the final section addresses poverty and its spatial dimension as a crucial lens through which to understand the differentiated impact of the processes of change in Western capitalist societies, both in socio-economic and spatial terms.

Joining the Customs Service

This chapter pursues dual aims of elucidating the Customs’s recruitment procedures and exploring the socioeconomic factors that influenced decisions to relocate overseas. Despite the enduring caricature of the upper-class Englishman as the quintessential colonist, the socioeconomic profile of Customs employees presented in this chapter demonstrates the diverse range of people for whom the empire world spoke of opportunity. Furthermore, this chapter shows how global networks of patronage, family, education and employment propelled the international migrations of employees of colonial institutions. This chapter finds that expatriates were not primarily motivated to seek work overseas because of a single-minded commitment to imperialism; rather, family links to empire, previous employment in the empire world, a desire for adventure and, importantly, the prospect of a reliable career were more significant factors.

in Empire careers
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In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the Scottish diaspora. In part, this reflects an increased focus by academics on aspects of international migration and diasporas; Scotland, with a substantial diaspora in most parts of the world, has therefore been a subject for study by a number of historians and sociologists. While we have touched on the diasporic element in other aspects of the book, a clear and focused analysis is presented here. There has been a political interest in the diaspora, with the Scottish Government developing a diaspora strategy, not least in order to encourage ‘roots tourism’, as those individuals of Scots descent come back to visit their ‘homeland’. We explore the ongoing relationship between Scotland and its diaspora, for example in the context of the 2014 Year of Homecoming, and how Scotland seeks to engage with the diaspora, politically and socially.

in Scotland