This book reassesses a defining historical, political and ideological moment in contemporary history: the 1989 revolutions in central and eastern Europe. It considers the origins, processes and outcomes of the collapse of communism in eastern Europe. The book argues that communism was not simply an 'unnatural Yoke' around the necks of East Europeans, but was a powerful, and not entirely negative, historical force capable of modernizing societies, cultures and economies. It focuses on the interplay between internal and external developments as opposed to an emphasis on Cold War geopolitical power struggles and the triumphalist rhetoric of how the 'freedom-loving' USA 'defeated' the 'totalitarian' Soviet Union. The book also approaches the East European revolutions from a variety of angles, emphasizing generational conflicts, socio-economic and domestic aspects, international features, the 'Gorbachev factor', and the role of peace movements or discourses on revolution. It analyses the peace movements in both parts of Germany during the 1980s from a perspective that transcends the ideological and geopolitical divides of the Cold War. The history of the East German peace movement has mostly been written from the perspective of German unification in 1989-1990. Many historians have read the history of the civil rights movement of 1989-1990 backwards in order to show its importance, or ignored it altogether to highlight the totalitarian character of the German Democratic Republic.
The term ‘internationalism’ was widely used in the early twentieth century, albeit in a somewhat diffuse manner: it could refer to an outlook, a movement or a process. The introduction addresses such terminological issues and considers the existing literature on internationalism and transnational exchanges.
The chapter examines the extent to which the period between 1880 and 1930 can be described as an ‘age of internationalism’ – a period characterised by a plethora of campaigns and congresses with international features. It draws attention to the particular role of small states in this period. Belgium, Switzerland, the Netherlands and the Nordic countries all hosted a variety of international meetings and movements. Belgium hence provides a fitting case to study transnational processes in their national context. Accordingly, the final section introduces the specific Belgian settings of internationalism, including the political currents and social milieus to which it was connected.
Victorian medical men could suffer numerous setbacks on their individual paths to professionalisation, and Thomas Elkanah Hoyle's career offers a telling exemplar. This book addresses a range of the financial, professional, and personal challenges that faced and sometimes defeated the aspiring medical men of England and Wales. Spanning the decades 1780-1890, from the publication of the first medical directory to the second Medical Registration Act, it considers their careers in England and Wales, and in the Indian Medical Service. The book questions the existing picture of broad and rising medical prosperity across the nineteenth century to consider the men who did not keep up with professionalising trends. Financial difficulty was widespread in medical practice, and while there are only a few who underwent bankruptcy or insolvency identified among medical suicides, the fear of financial failure could prove a powerful motive for self-destruction. The book unpicks the life stories of men such as Henry Edwards, who could not sustain a professional persona of disinterested expertise. In doing so it uncovers the trials of the medical marketplace and the pressures of medical masculinity. The book also considers charges against practitioners that entailed their neglect, incompetence or questionable practice which occasioned a threat to patients' lives. The occurrence and reporting of violent crime by medical men, specifically serious sexual assault and murder is also discussed. A tiny proportion of medical practitioners also experienced life as a patient in an asylum.
the Latin world and the Germanic world, which touch each other on [… Belgian] territory, has taken place; it is these ports which, for centuries, have served as entrepots for goods from North and South.19 Although Pirenne’s views on Belgium’s international features were affected by the Great War, he restated his view of Belgium as a ‘syncretism’ in the final volume of his magnum opus, published in 1932: ‘The Belgian environment is truly a syncretism of the most diverse civilisations, comparable to ancient Syria, similarly located at the contact point of great
developments as opposed to an exclusive emphasis on Cold War geopolitical power struggles and the populist triumphalist rhetoric of how the ‘freedomloving’ USA ‘defeated’ the ‘totalitarian’ Soviet Union. Our contributors have subsequently approached the East European revolutions from a variety of angles, emphasising in turn generational conflicts (Junes, chapter 5), socio-economic and domestic aspects (Pullmann and Simeonova, chapters 8 and 10), international features (Borhi, chapter 6), the ‘Gorbachev factor’ (Buckley and Grieder, chapters 3 and 4), and the role of peace
Midwifery Practice’, British Medical Journal 9 April 1870, p. 365. 154 Medical misadventure 87 ‘Trial for Manslaughter in Midwifery Practice’, p. 365. 88 The exceptions to this general rule were the occasional prosecutions of men seeking to abort their own offspring without mothers’ consent. 89 Post-partum sepsis of all kinds, whether from abortion or other causes, were counted together until the twentieth century; I. Loudon, ‘Some International Features of Maternal Mortality, 1880–1950’, in V. Fildes, L. Marks, and H. Marland (eds), Women and Children First
institution also attracted academics and activists whose background was distant from anarchism. Henri La Fontaine, for instance, lectured on international law; later on, Paul Otlet taught ‘mondialism’ at a university section that survived the war, the Institut des Hautes Études. As the involvement of La Fontaine and Otlet suggests, the New University had clear international features. It attracted foreign students and scholars such as the French educator Paul Robin and Enrico Ferri, a disciple of Cesare Lombroso.65 Inaugurating the new academic year in 1905, Guillaume De
Featuring more than 6,500 articles, including over 350 new entries, this fifth edition of The Encyclopedia of British Film is an invaluable reference guide to the British film industry. It is the most authoritative volume yet, stretching from the inception of the industry to the present day, with detailed listings of the producers, directors, actors and studios behind a century or so of great British cinema.
Brian McFarlane's meticulously researched guide is the definitive companion for anyone interested in the world of film. Previous editions have sold many thousands of copies, and this fifth instalment will be an essential work of reference for universities, libraries and enthusiasts of British cinema.