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This book quantifies international organizations’ affiliation with particular values in their constitutions, like cooperation, peace and equality. The statistical and legal analyses tease out from the data the actual values contained in international organizations’ constitutions and their relationship with one another. Values like cooperation, representation and communication often appear together in international organizations’ constitutions. However, divide these organizations into groups – like regional versus universal organizations – and a kaleidoscope of different patterns in these values emerges. In the kaleidoscope, the reader clearly can see distinct groupings of organizations and values. With data pointing the way, many new – and seemingly contradictory – interpretations of international organizations law emerge. Not only does this book provide a map of international organizations’ values, it provides a healthy start towards fully understanding that map, thereby helping global governance take a quantum leap forward.

international organization diverges from its principles and values, as observed with the International Telecommunication Union in 1964. 5 These principles and values enter into the vast array of international standards that the states of the world adopt. 6 Even though broad principles like peace are enshrined in the United Nations (UN) Charter, technical standards also reflect and help promulgate these deeper principles and values. 7 Indeed, measurement standards from the International Bureau of Weights and Measures affect

in The values of international organizations

Introduction What do the numbers describing each international organization’s constitution tell us about these ’ principles? The Caribbean Telecommunication Union’s constitution may mention equality more than any other constitution, literally twice as often as the Indian Ocean Rim Association’s and the Organisation for Islamic Cooperation’s. How do these numbers compare with those of their peers? Do the high-frequency mentions of efficiency in the constitutions of the Association of Caribbean

in The values of international organizations

important principle in its own right. Much of the authority vested in international derives from agreements and events determined outside of the founding constitution, but what about the authority derived from their founding constitutions? 3 Such authority may come from subsequent treaties and agreements clarifying, expanding or restricting the international organization’s authority to decide and act on certain issues. 4 Many have tried to measure the way such authority in international changes

in The values of international organizations

Introduction Treaties form the basis for most, if not all, international . These treaties provide principles that govern all aspects of an international organization and define its character and activities. Given each international organization’s foundation on a separate “constitution,” if one could view these treaties as constitutions, can one talk of a singular law of international ? 1 The first chapter of this book reviewed the various textbooks of international law – by Bowett

in The values of international organizations
Michael Wood

international law was much debated, both within and outside the Commission. The role that may be played in this regard by actors other than States and international organizations, by contrast, proved largely uncontroversial. Intended to offer practical guidance on these and other matters to those called upon to identify and apply customary international law, the Commission’s conclusions seek to capture the present position in international law, as it appears from the approach of States and in the case law of courts and tribunals. It may be useful to clarify, at the outset

in International organisations, non-State actors, and the formation of customary international law
Joanne Yao

. The 1856 Paris Peace Treaty created the European Commission of the Danube as the first international executive body, and arguably the first truly international organization, with states holding joint authority over territory half a continent away. This chapter first considers the political context and the specific constellations of power governing the Danube at the Paris Peace Conference. Then, the chapter details discussions between diplomats on how to apply principles established at the Treaty of Vienna to the Danube. Specifically, I trace how competing

in The ideal river
Joanne Yao

If the Rhine and Danube commissions could be considered accomplishments in global governance, then the abortive International Commission of the Congo proposed in the text of the 1885 General Acts of the Berlin Conference was an international disaster. Chapter 7 examines diplomatic efforts to bring European normative and institutional models to the conceptual emptiness of the Congo basin. At first glance, it seemed that diplomats at Berlin faced the same dilemma as their predecessors at Paris in 1856 – whether to tame the river through private sovereign control or as international commons. However, the Congo represented a particular colonial geography in the European imagination – first, as a blank canvas waiting to be filled with European models, and second, in the Congo’s primary importance as a token in European balance of power politics. Combined, these framings led to the imposition of ill-fitting models taken from Europe’s own historical development onto the morally and politically ‘empty’ spaces of the colonial periphery. Hence, European diplomats’ inability to transform the Congo into a peaceful, non-sovereign, and neutral space for the benefit of international commerce reflected failings in the Western European geographical imaginary – both of the conceptually empty Congo as well as its understanding of Europe as a geography of universal and generalizable political possibilities.

in The ideal river
Abstract only
How control of nature shaped the international order
Author: Joanne Yao

Environmental politics has traditionally been a peripheral concern for IR theory, but increasing alarm over global environmental challenges has elevated international society’s relationship with the natural world into the theoretical limelight. IR theory’s engagement with environmental politics, however, has largely focused on interstate cooperation in the late twentieth century, with few works exploring the longstanding historical links between the management of natural resources and the foundations of the modern international order. This book examines nineteenth-century efforts to establish international commissions on three transboundary rivers – the Rhine, the Danube, and the Congo. It charts how the ambition to tame nature (both the natural world and human nature) became an international standard of rational and civilized authority and informed our geographical imagination of the international. This notion of domination over nature was central to the emergence of the early international order in the way it shaped three core IR concepts: the territorial sovereign state, imperial hierarchies, and international organizations. The book contributes to environmental politics and IR by highlighting how the relationship between society and nature, rather than being a peripheral concern, has always lain at the heart of international politics.

The dynamics of compound bureaucracies

This book introduces international bureaucracy as a key field of study for public administration and also rediscovers international bureaucracy as an essential ingredient in the study of international organizations. Firstly, the book systematically compares behavioural dynamics within a carefully selected number of international bureaucracies. The focus is on studying these dynamics within international bureaucracies at the actor level - that is, by studying the behaviour and roles as perceived by the officials themselves. The book outlines a conceptual map of four generic behavioural dynamics that are likely to be evoked by these officials: intergovernmental, supranational, departmental and epistemic dynamics. Essentially, the Westphalian international order dominated by the intergovernmental dynamic is challenged to the extent that international bureaucracies embed supranational, departmental and epistemic dynamics in everyday decision-making processes. Admittedly, there are no guarantees that these dynamics always materialise in the actors' behaviour and ultimately in the decisions reached by international organisations. However, they serve as cognitive and normative frames for action, rendering it more likely than not that particular decision-making dynamics are associated with certain behavioural patterns. Secondly, the book illuminates some causal factors that may help to explore the conditions under which different behavioural dynamics are manifested in the behavioural and role perceptions of the incumbents of international bureaucracies. Essentially, the authors do not propose to 'test' the four dynamics outlined above in a rigorous manner. They serve more as 'searchlights for illuminating empirical patterns in our data'.