The first European Union's (EU) enlargement of the twenty-first century coincides with a period of international tension and transition. Tensions have been apparent over: the war in Iraq, the 'War on Terror', immigration, organised crime, ethnic confrontation, human rights, energy resources and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The EU has made genuine progress in developing its security policies since the launch of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and Justice and Home Affairs (JHA) in the Treaty on European Union (TEU). This book examines the impact that enlargement will have on leadership within the EU, a pre-requisite for policy coherence. It focuses on what has been Europe's most significant region in terms of security challenges and international responses since the end of the Cold War: the Balkan. The book provides an overview of the foreign policy priorities and interests of the new member states (NMS), highlighting areas of match and mismatch with those of the EU fifteen. Counter-terrorism has emerged from the shadows of the EU's Third Pillar, and has been propelled to the forefront of the EU's internal agenda, driven by the demands of the 'War on Terror'. The book discusses the core elements of the EU's emerging common external border management, with a focus on the creation of the EU's new External Borders Agency and the Schengen Borders Code. While the first two are declarative partnership and declarative negativism, the last two reflect the struggle between pragmatism and Soviet-style suspicion of Western bureaucrats.
process, which was marked by the preliminary engagement of internationaltransitional justice professionals and the establishment of a Ministry for Human Rights and Transitional Justice. However, in this stage, transitional justice had not yet been introduced as a planned project that was separate from other measures of transitional governance; nevertheless, the latter often had a transitional justice dimension in that the transitional authorities began to address issues of justice in connection with past abuses and malpractice. Apart from the abovementioned
technical committee reported, those citizens involved in the participatory part of the transitional justice dialogue and chosen as moderators and multiplicators all received the same training provided by internationaltransitional justice professionals: “[A]nd they all went through the same training on transitional justice, on debate moderation, on writing reports, on all of this.”
This led to a harmonisation of rhetoric on transitional justice, albeit not necessarily on the question of what transitional justice
Identity is often regarded as something that is possessed by individuals, states, and other agents. In this edited collection, identity is explored across a range of approaches and under-explored case studies with a view to making visible its fractured, contingent, and dynamic features. The book brings together themes of belonging and exclusion, identity formation and fragmentation. It also examines how identity functions in discourse, and the effects it produces, both materially and in ideational terms. Taking in case studies from Asia-Pacific, Europe, the Middle East and Latin America, the various chapters interrogate identity through formal governing mechanisms, popular culture and place. These studies demonstrate the complex and fluid nature of identity and identity practices, as well as implications for theorising identity.
laid with the support of internationaltransitional justice professionals. But transitional justice has been an arena of contention instead of bringing about peace and justice; and it has been hard for the project to deliver on its goals and promises. Against this backdrop, one is encouraged to wonder how such a thorough approach to transitional justice could evolve towards a decision to disband the central institution of the planned transitional justice project – followed by a decision not to do so after all and a subsequent oscillation between furthering and
's increasingly global character has played a vital role in this, as has the mainstreaming and standardising of transitional justice ideas and measures and their vernacularisation. These features characterise the transitional justice efforts initiated in Tunisia after the uprisings, as they have been shaped by ideas of internationaltransitional justice processes and the experiences of other countries, but also by the ideas of domestic actors from different spheres, such as politics and civil society.
Goal-orientation and ‘process gap’
a qualified or reasoned decision ( décision motivée ), which would then need to be submitted to parliament at least three months before the expiration of its mandate. But it does not specify who can decide whether a decision is reasoned or not. In interviews and conversations in 2015, several interlocutors involved in Tunisian politics and civil society, as well as internationaltransitional justice professionals, raised the question of whether parliament would renew the mandate, therefore clearly assuming that the ARP would be competent to take a decision on the
During this time, the Security Council decided to execute three large multidimensional operations to maintain global security. In Cambodia it developed a new
model for an internationaltransitional administration. In the former Yugoslavia
it developed a model for humanitarian intervention. Finally, in Somalia, faced
with the challenge of a collapsed state, it developed the model of state-building.
Furthermore, the chapter concludes that in most cases, the United Nations continued to work according to the peacekeeping operations’ Cold War principles of
execution – it
Studies, edited by P. Burgess, 81–9. New York: Routledge.
Björkdahl, A. 2008. “To Practice What They Preach: InternationalTransitional
Administrations and the Paradox of Norm Promotion.” In Globalization and
Challenges to Building Peace, edited by A. Swain, R. Amer and J. Öjendal, 145–64.
London: Anthem Press.
Butler, J.  2006. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. New
Establishing and consolidating identity
Carreiras, H. 2010. “Gendered Culture in Peacekeeping Operations.” International
Peacekeeping 17 (4): 471
Contested narratives of the independence struggle in postconfl ict Timor-Leste
internationaltransitional justice efforts.5
The independence struggle began after the Carnation Revolution
in Portugal in 1974, when the territory which had been Portuguese
Timor for around four centuries was thrust into a series of cataclysmic events. The brief period of rapid decolonisation led to a brief but
bitter civil war in 1975, followed by the proclamation of independence. This proclamation was made under the shadow of a looming
Indonesian invasion, and nine days later the morning calm over the
capital city Dili was shattered by the growl of Indonesian air force