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Liverpool’s inconvenient imperial past

Liverpool occupies a prominent position in the contemporary popular imagination. In spite of decades of economic decline, urban decay and a name associated by some with poverty and crime, the city's reputation is by no means a negative one. The book is a collection of essays that focuses on the strength of Liverpool's merchant marine, representing both informal and formal empire over centuries. It discusses the interracial relationships in 1950s and 1960s Liverpool to demonstrate that many African and Afro-Caribbean sailors (and others) married or had relationships with white women. Given existing deficiencies in the historiographies of both Liverpool and the British Empire, the book aims to reassess both Liverpool's role within the British imperial system and the impact on the port city of its colonial connections. Liverpool's success has often been attributed to, and marred by, its being the leader in the slave trade after 1750. Napoleonic Wars were a period of great turbulence and difficulty for the Liverpool commercial community. Liverpool is perceived as a diasporic city, however, its ambiguous nineteenth-century identity reflected the tensions of its complex migrant connections. An analysis of Liverpool's business connections with South America reveals its relative commercial decline and the notion of 'gentlemanly capitalism'. The African ethnology collection of National Museums Liverpool's (NML) ethnology collections are displayed in the 'World Cultures' gallery of the World Museum Liverpool, which opened in 2005. Liverpool is perhaps not exceptional, though its networks are notable and striking.

Working-class white women, interracial relationships and colonial ideologies in nineteenth- and twentieth-century Liverpool
Diane Frost

This chapter examines interracial relationships between white women and black men in Liverpool from the mid nineteenth century onwards. While these relationships were important at a micro level to those individuals involved, they were also symbolic of wider macro historical and political phenomena. The union of working-class white women, sometimes themselves from once immigrant Irish families, and

in The empire in one city?
Lucy Bland

avail, for black GIs did indeed arrive; almost immediately there were various official attempts to prevent interracial relationships. In August 1942 MajorGeneral Dowler, in charge of Southern Command, where a large proportion of black GIs were stationed, issued a paper headed ‘Notes on Relations with Coloured Troops’ and sent it to District Commanders in his area; it was subsequently distributed more widely. The paper was not official, and indeed it had been decreed by the War Cabinet that no written instructions should be distributed on the subject of ‘coloured

in Britain’s ‘brown babies’
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The empire in one city?
Sheryllynne Haggerty, Anthony Webster and Nicholas J. White

Frost’s chapter on interracial relationships in 1950s and 1960s Liverpool demonstrates that many African and Afro-Caribbean sailors (and others) married or had relationships with white women. The fact that these couples challenged racial and therefore imperial boundaries meant that they encountered ostracism and racism from the white community. In this case, it was the white women who experienced the most abuse, and

in The empire in one city?
Author: Lucy Bland

This book recounts the little-known history of the mixed-race children born to black American servicemen and white British women during the Second World War. Of the three million American soldiers stationed in Britain from 1942 to 1945, about 8 per cent (240,000) were African-American; the latter’s relationships with British women resulted in the birth of an estimated 2,000 babies. The African-American press named these children ‘brown babies’; the British called them ‘half-castes’. Black GIs, in this segregated army, were forbidden to marry their white girlfriends. Up to half of the mothers of these babies, faced with the stigma of illegitimacy and a mixed-race child, gave their children up for adoption. The outcome for these children tended to be long-term residency in children’s homes, sometimes followed by fostering and occasionally adoption, but adoption societies frequently would not take on ‘coloured’ children, who were thought to be ‘too hard to place’. There has been minimal study of these children and the difficulties they faced, such as racism in a (then) very white Britain, lack of family or a clear identity. Accessibly written and illustrated with numerous photographs, this book presents the stories of over forty of these children. While some of the accounts of early childhood are heart-breaking, there are also many uplifting narratives of finding American fathers and gaining a sense of self and of heritage.

Nicole M. Jackson

really hard. We didn’t achieve that.’ Despite Giles’s assertion that the show had failed in this regard, journalist Alyssa Rosenberg pronounces Luther a ‘fresh … approach to race’ and suggests that it is ‘full of interracial relationships that range from the emotionally and sexually intimate, to the professionally bracing’.8 However, what little diversity actually exists on the show almost completely centres on Luther’s character. The programme Luther does not contribute significantly to the representation of BAME characters on television. John Myth of a multicultural

in Adjusting the contrast
Abstract only
Lucy Bland

.indd 3 02/04/2019 12:31 4  Britain’s ‘brown babies’ where the university’s law faculty was based. Thus by the age of twenty I had acquired a Guyanese stepmother and a Barbadian stepsister (‘Barbadian’ is her self-definition as someone who had largely grown up in Barbados). One of my nephews has mixed-race children and my partner and I have an adopted daughter from Guatemala. I write all this to illustrate why I, a white woman, am interested in interracial relationships and mixed-raceness: it is largely because they exist in my own family, an enriching diversity that

in Britain’s ‘brown babies’
HBO’s True Blood
Michelle J Smith

discrimination also mirrors historical conditions in which marriage between people of colour has been prohibited, as well as marriage between whites and non-whites for fear of miscegenation. While a vampire cannot inseminate a human to produce offspring, what are effectively interracial relationships between humans and vampires do face discrimination and judgment from both the vampire and human communities. Hoyt

in Open Graves, Open Minds
Ardel Thomas

who represents nothing because she has removed herself from the heterosexual economy at home and abroad. NOTES 1 While the term ‘miscegenation’ is more properly utilised to describe a ‘mixing of blood’ negatively when referring to interracial relationships, I find it to be a useful term when exploring the

in Queering the Gothic
Daniela Baratieri

: The regime’s mythology is not visible in the protagonists if not covertly ... the interracial relationships in fact were free, full of reciprocal collaboration typical of people living together. Only officers and Fascist party official were strictly following the ideology that was coming from above. 113 The

in Imperial expectations and realities