This book provides a detailed consideration of the history of racing in British culture and society, and explores the cultural world of racing during the interwar years. The book shows how racing gave pleasure even to the supposedly respectable middle classes and gave some working-class groups hope and consolation during economically difficult times. Regular attendance and increased spending on betting were found across class and generation, and women too were keen participants. Enjoyed by the royal family and controlled by the Jockey Club and National Hunt Committee, racing's visible emphasis on rank and status helped defend hierarchy and gentlemanly amateurism, and provided support for more conservative British attitudes. The mass media provided a cumulative cultural validation of racing, helping define national and regional identity, and encouraging the affluent consumption of sporting experience and a frank enjoyment of betting. The broader cultural approach of the first half of the book is followed by an exploration if the internal culture of racing itself.
This book compares the worldviews and factors that promoted or, indeed, opposed anti-semitism amongst Catholics in Germany and England after the First World War. As a prequel to books on Hitler, fascism and genocide, it turns towards ideas and attitudes that preceded and shaped the ideologies of the 1920s and 1940s. Apart from the long tradition of Catholic anti-Jewish prejudices, the book discusses new and old alternatives to European modernity offered by Catholics in Germany and England. Numerous events in the interwar years provoked anti-Jewish responses among Catholics: the revolutionary end of the war and financial scandals in Germany; Palestine and the Spanish Civil War in England. At the same time, the rise of fascism and National Socialism gave Catholics the opportunity to respond to the anti-democratic and anti-semitic waves these movements created in their wake. The book is a political history of ideas that introduces Catholic views of modern society, race, nation and the ‘Jewish question’. It shows to what extent these views were able to inform political and social activity.
Anglophobia in Fascist Italy traces the roots of Fascist Anglophobia from the Great War and through the subsequent peace treaties and its development during the twenty years of Mussolini’s regime. Initially, Britain was seen by many Italians as a ‘false friend’ who was also the main obstacle to Italy’s foreign policy aspirations, a view embraced by Mussolini and his movement. While at times dormant, this Anglophobic sentiment did not disappear in the years that followed, and was later rekindled during the Ethiopian War. The peculiarly Fascist contribution to the assessment of Britain was ideological. From the mid-1920s, the regime’s intellectuals saw Fascism as the answer to a crisis in the Western world and as irredeemably opposed to Western civilisation of the sort exemplified by Britain. Britain was described as having failed the ‘problem of labour’, and Fascism framed as a salvation ideology, which nations would either embrace or face decay. The perception of Britain as a decaying and feeble nation increased after the Great Depression. The consequence of this was a consistent underrating of British power and resolve to resist Italian ambitions. An analysis of popular reception of the Fascist discourse shows that the tendency to underrate Britain had permeated large sectors of the Italian people, and that public opinion was more hostile to Britain than previously thought. Indeed, in some quarters hatred towards the British lasted until the end of the Second World War, in both occupied and liberated Italy.
Popular culture is invariably a vehicle for the dominant ideas of its age. Never was this more true than in the late-19th and early 20th centuries, when it reflected the nationalist and imperialist ideologies current throughout Europe. This book examines the various media through which nationalist ideas were conveyed in late-Victorian and Edwardian times in the theatre, "ethnic" shows, juvenile literature, education and the iconography of popular art. Nineteenth-century music hall was known as the 'fount of patriotism'. A heroic and romantic vision of Empire helped to widen the appeal of British imperialism, which newspaper and magazine editors insisted on communicating to the new mass reading public. Juvenile fiction included Victorian children's books, and very few seemed deliberately anti-imperialist. The book offers a bridge between the pre-1914 period and the interwar years and between the public school and state school systems. It discusses the case of Peter Lobengula as a focus for racial attributes in late Victorian and Edwardian times. The imperial economic vision lay ready to hand for the publicists and public relations men who saw the Empire Marketing Board as one of the great opportunities in the inter-war years to develop their craft. The book also argues that whereas the Scout movement was created in the atmosphere of defensive Empire in the Edwardian period, Scouting ideology underwent a significant change in the post-war years. Girl Guides remind us that the role of girls and women in youth organisations and imperial ideologies has been too little studied.
made the first ascent of the Dent Blanche (4,300 m), one of the most difficult peaks in the Alps, in July 1928. 14
It is now generally agreed that although the women’s movement fragmented after the 1918 and 1928 suffrage victories, women continued to seek equality in all parts of their lives, despite Ray Strachey’s triumphant signing off, in her classic feminist history, that ‘the main fight is over and the main victory is won’. 15 There is still disagreement, however, over the strength, focus, direction and achievements of women’s activism in the interwaryears
idea that the working classes should pay in to the system,
the various schemes that facilitated this in the community and the almoner who
policed it in the hospital, as well as the idea of opening up the hospital to
middle-class patients, were all inventions of the nineteenth century. Yet it was
not until the interwaryears that any of them became the norm, or even
commonplace. In both principle and practice, the change brought about was more
complex than a
publications, including the Friends Quarterly Examiner and, in the immediate post-war period, the journal Reconstruction , which chronicled the work of volunteers in Poland, Austria and Serbia. Wilson’s first articles were published in 1919 in the Quarterly Examiner and Reconstruction , and she began writing for The Friend in 1934 with an article about a school in Lichtenstein for the children of displaced pacifist and Jewish refugees from Germany.
During the interwaryears, The Friend , ‘A religious, literary and miscellaneous journal’, was a weekly periodical
Winifred Holtby and Vera Brittain, the most famous example of mutually beneficial literary female friendship of the interwaryears. 15
Friendship and the single woman
Vera Brittain and Winifred Holtby’s friendship, combined with their talent, was a key element of their success as writers. During the early 1920s they shared the cost of London ‘digs’: they avoided the cleaning together, huddled round the feeble gas stove for warmth, worked over each other’s manuscripts and swapped introductions with publishers and editors. 16 Despite the drawbacks of the chilly and
representations, the body and
feelings to questions of male movement, everyday social and recreational
space and ‘geographies of performance’.149 Chapter 6 asks how youthful
masculinities were performed, constructed and contested in sexualised
leisure locales such as the dance hall – like letters to advice columnists,
an expressive outlet more usually perceived in relation to young women.
It traces the implications of how social dancing changed over the interwaryears, from that of the 1920s, which subverted traditional notions
of male physicality, to the shaping effects of the
issue was fundamentally also about equal pay at this point. Therefore, thinking about
the ways in which different facets of discrimination against women civil
servants worked both independently and together is imperative.
The story of equal pay campaigns in the interwaryears is one of
continuity rather than any tangible change. Multiple elements of “logic”
and rhetoric were used by those with the power to make decisions in
attempts to deflate equal pay demands and to ensure that no cumulative change could be effected. Although arguments about government