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If walls could talk

Northern Ireland is regarded as one of the most successful 'post conflict' societies in the world. The reimaging of Belfast as a 'post conflict' city tends to gloss over these persistent divisions. This book provides a thought provoking and comprehensive account of teenagers' perceptions and experiences of the physical and symbolic divisions that exist in 'post conflict' Belfast. Despite Northern Ireland's new status as one of the most successful examples of the resolution of what was once seen as an intractable conflict, the peace walls which separate Protestant and Catholic areas remain in place. The book examines the micro-geographies of young people and draws attention to the social practices, discourses and networks that directly or indirectly (re)shape how they make sense of and negotiate life in Belfast. It focuses is on the physical landscape enclosing interface areas and the impact that it has on the perceptions and actions of young people living in these areas. The book explores how physical divisions are perceived and experienced by young people who live in interface areas and how they view the architecture of division. It pays attention to the impact of place on teenagers' social relations within and between the localities in which they reside. The city centre of Belfast epitomises the city's status as a 'post conflict' city. A recurring argument is that identity does not exist 'out there'. The book shows how social relationships are inherently spatial and how identities are influenced by place and impact on it.

Hilary Charlesworth and Christine Chinkin

This new introduction reflects on developments in the two decades since the publication of the book in 2000. It describes the profound changes in the international legal sphere, notably the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001, intractable conflicts that have weakened the authority of multilateral institutions and the growth of right-wing populism. The chapter questions the overall optimism about the power of international law to improve the lives of women manifest in the book and emphasises the ambivalence of the international legal order for women. The chapter starts by considering the meaning of the term ‘feminist analysis’ and then moves on to review some of the history of feminist engagements with international law, observing that the international sphere has long provided a beacon of hope for women. Its focus is an area that had barely emerged when Boundaries was published: the UN Security Council’s ‘women, peace and security’ (WPS) agenda, which commenced with resolution 1325 adopted in October 2000. This field illustrates a pattern of apparent normative progress, which is undermined by gendered institutional cultures. The most acceptable feminist ideas internationally have been increasing the participation of women and combating violence against women, although these have faced many hurdles. It has been even more difficult to achieve normative and cultural change to support transformative equality for women, or an international legal order where issues of sex and gender and other structural inequalities are given sustained attention and adequate resources for achievement.

in The boundaries of international law
Timothy J. White

foresight and information rationality assumes.18 Rather, decision-makers base their actions on what they have learned to expect from interacting with others over time. More recently, dynamic systems theory has been used to explain how seemingly intractable conflicts can become more peaceful.19 This theory stresses that conflicts exist because of the persistence of an attractor or a mental state among the group in conflict which resists change. Discrepant information which challenges the existing cognitive evaluation of the ‘other’ is ignored or discounted. Thus, self

in Theories of International Relations and Northern Ireland
Author: Laura Varnam

The church as sacred space places the reader at the heart of medieval religious life, standing inside the church with the medieval laity in order to ask what the church meant to them and why. It examines the church as a building, idea, and community, and explores the ways in which the sanctity of the church was crucial to its place at the centre of lay devotion and parish life. At a time when the parish church was facing competition for lay attention, and dissenting movements such as Lollardy were challenging the relevance of the material church, the book examines what was at stake in discussions of sanctity and its manifestations. Exploring a range of Middle English literature alongside liturgy, architecture, and material culture, the book explores the ways in which the sanctity of the church was constructed and maintained for the edification of the laity. Drawing on a wide range of contemporary theoretical approaches, the book offers a reading of the church as continually produced and negotiated by the rituals, performances, and practices of its lay communities, who were constantly being asked to attend to its material form, visual decorations, and significance. The meaning of the church was a dominant question in late-medieval religious culture and this book provides an invaluable context for students and academics working on lay religious experience and canonical Middle English texts.

Place, space and discourse
Editors: Christine Agius and Dean Keep

Identity is often regarded as something that is possessed by individuals, states, and other agents. In this edited collection, identity is explored across a range of approaches and under-explored case studies with a view to making visible its fractured, contingent, and dynamic features. The book brings together themes of belonging and exclusion, identity formation and fragmentation. It also examines how identity functions in discourse, and the effects it produces, both materially and in ideational terms. Taking in case studies from Asia-Pacific, Europe, the Middle East and Latin America, the various chapters interrogate identity through formal governing mechanisms, popular culture and place. These studies demonstrate the complex and fluid nature of identity and identity practices, as well as implications for theorising identity.

Arabs, Israelis, and the limits of military force
Author: Jeremy Pressman

The Arab–Israeli conflict has been at the centre of international affairs for decades. Despite repeated political efforts, the confrontation and casualties continue, especially in fighting between Israelis and Palestinians. This new assessment emphasizes the role that military force plays in blocking a diplomatic resolution. Many Arabs and Israelis believe that the only way to survive or to be secure is through the development, threat, and use of military force and violence. This idea is deeply flawed and results in missed diplomatic opportunities and growing insecurity. Coercion cannot force rivals to sign a peace agreement to end a long-running conflict. Sometimes negotiations and mutual concessions are the key to improving the fate of a country or national movement. Using short historical case studies from the 1950s through to today, the book explores and pushes back against the dominant belief that military force leads to triumph while negotiations and concessions lead to defeat and further unwelcome challenges. In The sword is not enough, we learn both what makes this idea so compelling to Arab and Israeli leaders and how it eventually may get dislodged.

Abstract only
Sandra Buchanan

al . 18 which examines the transformation of intractable conflicts, we can go some way towards understanding the dynamics of conflict transformation through social and economic development in a case such as Northern Ireland. The costs of any conflict are largely social and economic, with civilians bearing the brunt of the consequences in terms of lives lost, displacement and loss of possessions

in Transforming conflict through social and economic development
Abstract only
Timothy J. White

provides a unique opportunity to study theories focused on conflict resolution, negotiation, and settlement of a seemingly intractable conflict, but because of the time that has passed since the 1998 Agreement, scholars have also focused on theories related to peacebuilding. One of the unique advantages of studying the Northern Ireland case is that there is clearly a degree of success in terms of conflict resolution based on the signing of the Good Friday Agreement. The challenges to implementing this Agreement and overcoming historic sectarianism provide fertile ground

in Theories of International Relations and Northern Ireland
Abstract only
Stacey Gutkowski

a much wider universe of cases in the world, beyond liberal democracies in Western Europe and the Anglosphere. 28 Further, what happens in cases of intractable conflict, rather than neatly defined ‘wars’? While the four Gaza ‘operations’ provide, from a Jewish-Israeli perspective, clear-cut instances of ‘war’, they must be understood within a complex matrix of Occupation violence. 29 The case therefore helps me to problematize both ‘war’ and ‘the secular’, advancing the comparative literature. That said, there are enough similarities between the two case

in Religion, war and Israel’s secular millennials
Construction of the African Union’s peace and security structures
Kasaija Phillip Apuuli

-independence era by establishing new principles for regional cooperation and integration (Brown, 2012 : 1891). The OAU, the predecessor of the AU, was not successful in ending the numerous intractable conflicts that had afflicted the continent for a long time. Thus the AU’s institutions, powers and objectives were supposed to amount to a fundamental shift away from the constraints imposed on actions under the OAU Charter. The major change under the AU has been a renewed emphasis on building a continental security regime that is capable of managing and resolving African

in Britain and Africa in the twenty-first century